Higher education in Russia: the system, the history of the development

High school education in Russia is a unified system that includes more than 650 universities of the state sample.They are educated about nine million people, among them a large number of citizens of foreign countries.Training is carried out in several directions: medical, engineering, financial, economic and humanitarian.Existing disciplines allow to receive higher education in any field, and absolutely everyone who has a certificate of secondary (school) or special educational institution (vocational school).

Graduate School of Russian

foundation of Russian higher education is based on the world famous school of unique knowledge and discoveries of Russian scientists, as well as an irresistible thrust of our predecessors in the sciences.

Higher Education in Russia - is not an empty phrase.It is backed up by practical skills of highly qualified teachers, many of whom have a PhD, Doctor of Science, and some - wear the proud title of professor.Graduate School provides an opportunity not only to ge

t good knowledge, skills, professional skills, but also a prestigious education, since the degree of Russian sample is valued in many foreign countries.

Russia - a country with a long history, traditions and cultural heritage of incomparable nature and its resources, with its way of life, customs and national characteristics.Graduating man unwittingly becomes part of that might be attached to the experience of generations of history, becoming a part of the Russian soul.

system of higher education in Russia

Anyway, the topic of higher education is inextricably linked with the history.In particular, the history of its formation.That system, which has developed to date, there was no immediately.She elaborated centuries, achieved over the years.

modern higher education in Russia is a multi-level system, which emit different levels of training: basic term to obtain a degree takes 5 years, after which students are awarded the qualification "specialist".You can then continue their studies in graduate school, it is held for three years.In addition, it is possible to get a degree "Bachelor of Science" and "Master of Science", a period of study of four and two years respectively.

situation is somewhat different if you choose to pursue higher education in medical school.In this case, the training depends on the chosen specialization diploma clinical psychologist, pharmacist or dentist student gets five years.At the rate of pediatrics, sports medicine and therapeutic case it needs to finished six years.Further education in higher medical schools can continue enrolling in internship (1 year).Depending on the specialty of the doctor and requests can be completed clinical studies (2 to 5 years).Or go to graduate school training period it is three years.

Highlights in the system during

academic year in the Russian high schools lasts from 1 September to 30 June.It is divided into two semesters, each of which ends the session (winter and summer).During her students take many tests, exams passed previously disciplines.Vacations students receiving higher education, too.And they begin just after the sessions.Winter lasts two to three weeks, the summer - two months.The most difficult exam tests the student passes the final year of their training.In the winter he takes state examinations, they include questions on all subjects studied.And in the summer protects its independent thesis.

training in Russian universities is carried out in Russian and is based on three forms of education: full-time (day), time (allows you to work in parallel with their studies) and evening (held in the evenings or weekends).In recent years, many non-state higher schools practice distance learning, in which the person lives in another city (most provinces) and gets the job to the house, periodically coming to the session.For the same employment system can be carried out via Skype, if, for example, to talk about the study of foreign languages.

After graduation, the graduate receives Russian state diploma indicating qualifications.And, as a rule, a document with honors is red, but in other cases - blue.It is important to know that at present our diplomas are considered valid in all countries of the world.

rating system

raising the subject of assessment in the Russian Federation, it should be said that it is not much different from the school grading system.The highest mark is considered to be - "5" - excellent;followed by "4" - good;"3" - satisfactory;"2" - unsatisfactory.There is an evaluation form "credit" and "Fail".Upon receipt of "unsatisfactory" or "Fail" student has the opportunity to retake the subject, agreed in advance with the teacher.In this procedure it is given three attempts.If during this time the student was not able to get a decent mark, he could face expulsion from the university.

particularly careless students can not be admitted to the session at all.The reason most often is missing lectures and seminars absence.This problem is solved, if there is good cause, and the beginning of the session put the necessary minimum.In this case, "vuzovets" can still be admitted to the exams.

Besides negative forms of assessment, higher education in Russia and provides an incentive certification.A student may receive "credit" or a good grade automatically ("automatic") without putting the subject, provided that the entire semester regularly attended all the classes, complete assignments and follow all the requirements of the teacher.

how to develop higher education

This is a fairly big topic.It could be as a separate publication, or even a book, but try to stay within the same sub-section.Origin and development of higher education in Russia started about XI-XII centuries and constantly dependent on several factors.Firstly, the different areas of human activity (science, culture, navigation, trade and others) did not stand still, and developing, therefore, society is in need of more qualified personnel.Secondly, the very Russian environment require further formation in terms of the development of science, as was the exchange of experiences with other countries, have been extensively studied languages.This is especially noticeable was in the time of Peter I.

can not ignore the fact that the major contribution to the development of higher education made by Russian officials, educators, mathematicians, chemists, philosophers, thinkers: Kovalevsky, Lomonosov, Radishchev, Lobachevsky, Pisarev,Belinsky, Herzen, Dobrolyubov, Timiryazev, Pirogov, Mendeleev, and many others.At the same time, higher education in Russia is strongly influenced by the teachings of Marx and Engels.And Mikhail Lomonosov, for example, like no other, sought to rid the scope of the doctrine of the scholastic views, imposed before the church and tried to make education more secular.In addition, it was the training program, trying to make sure that students receive not only theoretical knowledge but also taught practical skills involved in laboratory experiments and experiments.And in 1755 he opened the Moscow Lomonosov University (MGU), which is perhaps the most classic example of an educational institution, where even today you can get a Russian higher education in its full sense.

little history ...

development and history of higher education in Russia is closely intertwined with the events that are constantly taking place in the country and abroad.For example, after the industrial revolution in Europe, our power is also undergoing its own changes, in particular, it is based Leningrad Mining Institute, who became the ancestor of higher technical education in Russia.Mainly in the School of Mines (so they called it in those days) taught mathematical disciplines: algebra, geometry, architecture, metallurgy, mineralogy, chemistry, physics, foreign languages.This variety of natural sciences and helps to get a decent all-round education.Russia, like many other countries, trying to make learning accessible to the female half.Finally, it has become possible after the Great October Socialist Revolution.At the same time facing higher education stood other goals and objectives.The plan was to build a completely new society through targeted education of youth and introduce radical changes in the learning process.

During Soviet times, higher education is closely been associated with the development plans of society and all sectors of the economy.Suffice it to recall the annual visits of student teams on potatoes or mandatory active participation in the affairs of the union.Prior to institutions of higher education the main task was to improve the level of training of future specialists, as well as to attract as many people from the people to quality education.In this regard, a number of measures: the introduction of incentives, provision of free hostel and the training itself, too, was not paid, and it was carried out in 70 languages.During the period of the Soviet Union higher education in Russian is available to all citizens, have a certificate of graduation.

Higher education in modern Russia

system of higher education in Russia is developing in accordance with the needs of society, and also depending on the achievements of our scientists in the natural sciences, medicine, physics, chemistry, computer science and other fields of knowledge.This immediately designated programs, objects, forms and methods of teaching in higher education.

In recent years, sharply raises the question of the need for generalists: design engineer, physician-biochemist, a lawyer and economist, a software engineer, and so on. D. The educational process in modern Russia combines an integrated approach mastery of knowledge, that is.e. Lectures are alternated with separate tasks, including practical.This approach allows you to activate the training thinking, initiative, hard work, responsibility among students.Systematic research of the Department of Student Community allows you to attach to the experimental work and thus increase the level of training.To this end, in many universities in our country organized by experienced laboratories, computer centers, research institutes, where he studied, solved urgent problems of modern society.

problems of higher education

Of course, today's Russia is impossible to imagine without the vital issues and prospects of planning in the field of higher education.Among the most obvious problems, perhaps you can mention the issue of paid education.Unfortunately, since the end of the 90s to get an education in this country can be and with the help of money.On the one hand, this is an additional opportunity for some categories of citizens, on the other - a real panacea, giving birth to a lot of disputes.

The first relates to the fact that the level of education has fallen sharply since all be bought, starting and ending with estimates diploma.As a consequence, it leads to the second problem - severe corruption in educational institutions.And in recent years it has become more serious.The problems of higher education in Russia are serious, and resolved slowly.However, the happy news is that in this area there is at least some movement.

If we talk about the prospects of higher education in our country, this process greatly contribute to our victory in science.Development of nano and biotechnology uniquely in the near future will lead to the emergence of new professions.And with it, and to new programs, methods and forms of education.