Ph.D., professor Dobaev KD
On the transition to the new system of education in Kyrgyzstan
With the new academic year, ieSeptember 1, 2012 transferred to the higher education institutions of the republic a two-tier structure of training - Bachelor and Master (Governmental Decree on 23.08.2011g. Number 496).According to the decree of the republic universities must restructure the system to the two-level structure with the loan program.
In recent years, Kyrgyzstan has accumulated some experience in the implementation of the programs of Bachelor and Master, as well as training on credit technology.And so in the Republic of work on the transition to a two-tier structure is not starting from scratch.And if you remember a government decree of 25 August 1993, № 396 "On approval of regulations governing the activities of the higher education system of the Kyrgyz Republic" and the decision of Ministry of Education and Science of the Kyrgyz Republic on May 23, 1995, №3 / 1 "The State Education StandardK
What do we have?Universities, in general, are ready for the transition to bachelor's and master's degrees.If you have previously been in the community for a lack of understanding of academic degrees Bachelor and Master, and hence the various conversations, even the fact that BA is not a higher education, but now such talk is gradually eroding.The realization that the bachelor - a basic higher education, it is more universally, that the scope of the qualification aimed for only one narrow specialty steel.What time dictates its conditions, when a person throughout life can change several times the area of activity, makes it necessary to obtain a basic higher education, which allows, then "string" it demanded specialties - is already a reality.
is why the preparation of bachelors focuses on the formation of common universal jurisdiction.Analysis of training programs in foreign universities bachelor shows that about 2/3 of the time is devoted to the formation of common, universal jurisdiction.This is understandable.Without good instrumental, interpersonal and systemic competencies can not be a successful career in any field.In preparing the curriculum of bachelors, we must consider this feature.Thus it is necessary to consider and to yet another feature, namely the preparation of bachelor academic direction and professionally-oriented bachelor's direction.
As for bachelor's academic direction, here, more or less clear.A graduate of the academic direction of the logic has to continue training in a magistracy.As for the professional-oriented direction, or even how it is called applied baccalaureate, there is a student selects a particular profile, in order to get a job finished.This does not mean that he is not entitled to further study in the magistracy.After some practice can go to graduate school for a more in-depth specialization.For Kyrgyzstan, a new concept applied bachelor.As the researchers say this problem (cast iron D. Yu, Vasiliev KD-Shafranov Kutsev GF) applied baccalaureate - this is the ultimate qualification that allows for direct access to the labor market, and rarely involves further training, althoughI do not exclude it.The program of applied bachelor degree is perfect for those who want to immediately after receiving a bachelor's degree to get started.
the West and Russia for applied bachelor programs have started to prepare just recently, or rather, from the end of the twentieth century.However, there are some differences in the preparation of applied bachelor degree in Europe and Russia.First of all, they are associated with a set of competencies that are being developed in the learning process.European Programme applied baccalaureate, as experts note, in addition to performing skills involves the formation of organizational and managerial skills.Graduates of applied bachelor degree - are highly skilled professionals who can not only follow the instructions to follow the regulations, but also take the initiative in their hands, to invent new ways of solving problems.
As for Russian undergraduate application, it is not entirely focused on the real economy, does not have the connection with the real economy, which is available in the West.Yes, and the content of education is more inclined to academicism, rather than to a particular labor market.In the meantime, the application must provide bachelor of professional practice-oriented training.Preparation of applied bachelor degree should be in close cooperation with employers, with their direct participation in the learning process.Only in this case it is possible to train specialists needed for the labor market.
We believe that Kyrgyzstan training in applied undergraduate should prevail.
With regard to the transition to the credit system of training, for the majority of universities in Kyrgyzstan is a new phenomenon?New not in the sense that they do not know what the credit, and credit education technology.No.New in terms of practical implementation.While in the country, there are universities, which use credit technology.We have in mind primarily the American University in Central Asia.
Of course, in an instant switch to a credit system, it is impossible.We need more outreach.Not all is not yet fully aware of and understand everything about credit system.But there is a certain understanding of the majority of workers in higher education.The main thing to give correct guidance.And now about the concept of credit.
Credit - a unit of measure student workload in terms of time required to achieve specific learning outcomes.Credit - a unit of measurement "weight" of the course or the program (number of hours of classroom and neauditornyh, etc.) within the appropriate qualifications.
Credit - quantitative (numerical) terms, the acquired knowledge, taking into account the results achieved in the course of training, and implementation.The credit can be awarded to the student in recognition formed as a result of learning competencies based on the assessment of learning outcomes.
Since we mainly focus on the materials of the Bologna process, namely, the European System of Credit Transfer (ECTS), the student during training must score at least 180 to 240 ZEto obtain a bachelor's degree.The minimum training period of 3-4 years.When we say, and how many hours in a loan, then we in the Republic there is no consensus.Some universities after Russia, is determined 36 hours and another 30 hours.We think it is not as essential.Although the draft TUNING - Tuning Educational Structures in Europe, one credit corresponds to 25-30 hours of study time.Perhaps this is why in the Government Resolution of July 4, 2012 № 472 one credit (credits) determined 30 hours.At the same time we must understand that in the credits is measured only academic load, but not student performance, contents or level of complexity of the material.Loans are given to the student only if he has successfully completed a particular module, the course, the discipline of study and received a positive assessment.Loans The exemptions or received by students are relative values, which reflect the amount of work required to complete a full academic year.It must be stressed that the loans are not independent variables, but always describe work completed as part of the curriculum.Speaking of credit accumulation system, we mean a system in which credits are accumulated in a logically constructed courses.In this sense, credit is a unit which reflects a certain amount of work performed successfully on the path to obtaining certain qualifications.
few words about the competencies and competence approach in education.The problem for Kyrgyzstan is a new phenomenon, far from all conscious.Generally, this problem is new not only for us but also for the European education system.
Competence approach originated in the United States in the 70-ies of XX century in connection with the need to find a solution to the following situation: the diplomats, who are willing to address in developing countries, the strategic objective of creating a positive image of the United States, having excellent knowledge and completely owning diplomatic skills farnot all were able to fulfill this mission.Careful analysis found that while the comprehensive subject of preparedness, they are very different from each other skills that are not the subject of implementation, but it is extremely important in real life.For these skills to offer special terms of competences, as they are not associated with any whatsoever knowledge, no specific algorithms any action, nor with any particular subject area.A simple introduction to the history of the issue shows that competence are natural characteristics of social action - unlike the action of subject that describes described and always will be described in terms of knowledge, skills and abilities [2, p.48].
What is competence?It - learning outcomes expressed in a set of competences - specific and clear list of what students should know, understand and be able to apply after completing the learning process.Competence may be formed both in relation to educational programs (module or course unit).Competences are formed in sequence and gradually.Thus, the formation of a particular jurisdiction may be provided in several courses or modules in various stages of the program.During the design phase of the program the decision on which units of the program will be aimed at the formation of specific competences.At the same time, some of the student will acquire competencies in "stealth" mode throughout the entire program, but the description of the results should be given only those competencies, the achievement of which will be subject to evaluation.At the same time we must remember that the curriculum is not simply a set of randomly chosen courses and interconnected complex, which is required for the development of a holistic approach.The training program focused on the student and on learning outcomes, all units are somehow related to each other.This rule applies not only to the units and modules that make up the core of the program, but also to secondary and elective courses.The results achieved in the study of a single unit or module contributes to the overall results and the formation of the required amount of competence, in close relationship with the results to be achieved in the study of other units of the program.
next question that we have to find out for themselves - the organization of educational process on the basis of modular educational programs.In the formation of competencies best suited modular programs.They are more transparent and make it easier to transfer a student from one school to another and recognition of the results at another university, and optimally distribute workload for different phases of the program.Moreover, the modular system allows to avoid unnecessary fragmentation, and hence the excess amount of examinations.The disadvantage of the modular system is that it reduces the freedom of teaching, limiting the amount of contact hours within the module.With the modular system increases flexibility, since it becomes possible to build different curricula and programs have in common.In a non-modular system (ie, such as ours, where the teachers of educational discipline is one) priority is the choice of material, while the modular system focuses on the structure of the curriculum as a whole.
begs the question, and what we mean by the module?The module is a relatively independent unit of the educational program, aimed at the formation of a certain professional competence or groups of competencies.In other words, the module - is a complete unit of the educational program, forming one or more specific professional competencies, accompanied by the control of knowledge and skills of students at the exit.Therefore, the modular education program - a combination and sequence of modules aimed at the mastery of specific competencies required for qualifications.
Here we must note that Europe-wide understanding of the term module does not exist.Some see the module as a time-limited, closed on the content to be studied educational units.Another module is defined as a compound educational blocks, coordinated with each other in content.It is assumed that the modules can be combined sequentially content both within a single discipline or several disciplines.
word modules - an element of the educational program, which is time-limited, closed on the content of certain results to be achieved and demonstrated by students.
When students study modules for each of them should be charged a certain number of credits (ECTS), acting as a measure of the complexity of educational work and to express the totality of all relevant educational process.When calculating the credits for the module in the complexity count: classroom load, independent work of students, writing the final qualifying work, etc.Typically, the module provides a 6-15 loan.
In developing the module can be guided by the following scheme:
- Determine the objectives of the module.
- Information block - theoretical material on structured educational elements in the form of manuals, workbooks, manuals sets with applications in the form of supporting abstracts, educational computer programs.
- Develop assessment tasks (to measure achievement).
- Threshold assessment criteria (using scoring criteria for the evaluation of students' motivation).
- Develop a strategy for teaching and learning (to facilitate students to achieve results and compliance criteria).
- Write learning outcomes (based on level descriptors).
- Develop and revise module (based on experience and feedback).
modular training system allows:
- integration of different types and forms of education;
- large-block organization of the educational material, together with the recommendations and tasks of its study;
- edge independent study by students of educational material;
- management through the teaching program (a sequence of tasks and steps of educational work) algorithms and cognitive activity;
- methodical system of openness of the teacher;
- choice of studying the level of assimilation, forms, place and pace of study material;
- creating conditions for successful cognitive activity in the learning process;
- the ability to work based on the individual study methods of teaching material, exercises its own path;
- substantial operational monitoring and evaluation of the results of the final control.
restructuring of the educational process on the principles of modularity implies:
- preliminary profound interdisciplinary study of the content of existing educational programs in order to avoid overlapping fragments of disciplines.
- determination of the list of training modules included in the PLO.
- establishing the possible educational trajectories in one of the PLO (including proflizatsy, specializations, master's programs, elective subjects and additional educational programs).
- development of the implementation of training modules, which will require considerable effort and quality PPP upgrade logistics, information and library, and publishing and printing facilities of the University.
- implementation of management and administration on the new principles to meet modern educational process and the restructuring of others. [3, pages 12-13].