Oak (wood): description.

Oak is a kind of plant, which belongs to the family of beech.There are two varieties: Trees and shrubs.Oak combines more than 500 species.Areoles habitat tree represented the northern hemisphere.The plant enjoys a temperate climate, so in the southern part of the world he lives only on the tropical highlands.Leaves and fruits are well recognized, partly edible and good for health.

maturation cycle

Oak - tree, which belongs to a type of evergreen plants.His koruna may not change for several years.Nevertheless, there are rocks in which the leaves fall with the onset of the first frost.Tree inflorescences are unisexual, fine.It should be noted that the cover of the crown during pollination underdeveloped.Strong flowers only women's, men's earrings can fall in at the slightest breath of wind.

noteworthy that the oak - wood, which are necessary for pollination scales of two floors.Fruit ripening occurs in the roll, which is a small saucer.Subsequently, it grows acorn.Each breed of oak and fruit roll dif

ferent shape.In some species elongated acorns, the second - round and small, from the third - orehoobraznye.Permission to cross breed, but this is likely to lead to a marked reduction urozhaya.Rastet tree very slowly, but can live for hundreds of years.The root system is formed during the first year, and then constantly evolving.Interestingly, after the saw cut oak some time off stump sprout abundantly powerful shoots.Oak - tree, which is not too demanding on the soil, so the soil can be anything.Natural breeding occurs acorns.The height of the oak ranges up to 40-45 meters.The volume of the crown depends on the breed and climate.

Description pedunculate oak

This type of plant is considered to be common, as it is the most common in the European part of the planet.Oak acorn sprout from just six months.Then for 20 years it formed its trunk, crown and roots.The oldest trees reach a height of 50 meters.The trunk and branches are thick, strong, able to withstand even heavy wind.At moderate conditions, and extensive root system petiolate oaks can live up to 1,000 years.

bark dark brown, thick.Leaves oblong grow beams have from 3 to 7 with a slight blunt blade teeth.Blooming these trees in late spring.Oaks ordinary love the sun, as it is flameproof plant.Acorns in length up to 3.5 cm.

Features oak fluffy

The most common representatives of this species are found in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, as well as in Asia Minor and southern Europe.The trees reach a height of only 8-10 meters.They are durable and heat resistance.

must say such rocks oaks are significantly inferior to many other varieties of height.But they have a very tortuous thick trunk with spreading branches.Due to the small size and wide crown plant is often a distance resembles a large shrub.The length of the leaves sometimes reach up to 10 cm. In form they are volatile, growing in pairs, the blade slightly pointed, dark green.Interestingly, the scales surrounding acorn, very fluffy and soft.

structure of the holm oak tree

homeland is considered the Mediterranean and Asia Minor.At present they are actively cultivated in North America and Europe.This evergreen plant whose height is 22-25 meters.The trunk is gray, smooth.Crohn's sprawling, dense.The leaves themselves are small, in the form of volatile, shiny, bright green color, leathery.The fruits ripen only in the second year.

oak grows rapidly, regardless of the climate.He is fit and temperatures down to -20 degrees and heat to 40.Shadow-, drought-resistant.It's called a breed of rock due to the fact that the trees grow mostly on the rocks in the mountains.

The characteristics of red oak

are most often found on the banks of rivers.He does not like the stagnation of water in the soil.Homeland red oak is considered North America, particularly Canada.At the height of these trees reach 25 meters.Externally, a slender trunk, smooth.The gray bark darkens with age and crack.Crohn shatrovidnaya oak, green with yellowish tints close to the ground.The leaves are large, sometimes reaching a diameter of 25 cm. They have sharpened blade.In autumn red and opadayut.Plody small, spherical, size - no more than 2 cm. Ripe red acorns, give slightly brown.They ripen in late autumn, the first year of bad harvest.Sustainable fruitfulness - up to 20 years.

hardy tree, quietly resists high winds and bright sun.

Interesting facts about white oak

Homeland plant is the east coast of North America.Large plantations are found in forests with a rich limestone soil.It is easy to get along with other species of oaks.It is important that area was no more than a kilometer above sea level.White oak trees can not tolerate severe frosts.

height of a mature tree is about 30 meters.Crohn's powerful shatrovidnaya formed spreading branches.Crust color - gray.Old trees almost burst, unlike chereshchatogo breed.The leaves are oval, large (22 cm), having up to 9 of the blades.During blooming blush, in the summer - green, closer to winter and fall are purple.

length acorns - up to 2.5 cm. Flakes fruit barely covered, so they often fall from the tree from strong winds.

Description Oak krupnoplodnogo

These trees are the North American species.Grow up to 30 meters.The trunk is thick, brown color, heavily cracked after a few years of the shoot.Shatrovidnaya crown shape is achieved by powerful spreading vetvyami.Listva oblong, lobed, it has a dark green color, shining in the sun and after the rain.In autumn the whole krona falls down, sometimes with thin branches.It is worth noting leaf diameter - 25 cm. Acorns large, often reach a length of 5 cm. Oval, a third covered with scales.

sprout macrocarpa oak with an average speed.The seeds are very hygrophilous and morozoneustoychivy.Because of this breed is considered decorative.

Timeless chestnut oak

is widespread in Armenia, Iran and North Caucasus.Cultivation can not be.Most of the plants - wild.In the mid-20th century, these trees have been listed as endangered, so they are cutting is strictly prohibited.In Hirkan preserve them should be specially trained people.

Interestingly, chestnut oak is a mixture of several wild species that grow mainly on the ridge crest.It is very light, moderately resistant to frost, but can not stand zasuhi.Kogda bloom leaves oak tree like a huge chestnut tree, 30 meters in height.The trunk is fairly slim and slender, spreading branches.Large leaves kashtanovidnye further emphasize the enormity shatrovidnoy crown.Acorns swell up to 3 cm in length.

Quercus palustris (pyramidal)

homeland breed considered the southern region of Canada.The tree reaches a height of about 25 meters.Crohn's distance resembles a pyramid.It is worth noting that almost merges with the trunk leaves.The fact is that the bark of the bog oak is completely green with a touch of brown.The leaves are medium, have deep notches and teeth.The color of the crown - green, but by the autumn becomes purple.The fruits are spherical, sessile, about 1.5 cm in diameter.

oak seeds like water, as well as mature trees.For additional moisture root system goes deep into the ground.Habitat breed - moorland.Pyramidal oak grows rapidly during long frost killed.Most large wild spaces can be found on the shores of lakes and reservoirs.

Cultivation and reproduction

English oak saplings and krupnoplodnogo very demanding to moisture and soil mineral wealth.That is why they quickly germinate in floodplains and deep forest loam.It is not recommended to plant seedlings of oak podzol soil.In such soil sprouts quickly perish, as the roots will not be able to gain a foothold because of the high acidity of the humus.

sow acorns desirable to late autumn.Fruits should be fresh.Assuming the slightest drying of acorns, the germination rate is reduced at times.The depth of planting of - from 5 to 8 cm. Before the oak to grow, it is important to know that the mail for sowing should be fertilized.To protect germs from pests need to cover their spruce branches.It is also important to maintain a stable temperature of the soil (at least 2 degrees) .Many growers are wondering how to grow an oak if other trees because of the circumstances do not give acorns.For it is possible to use the procedure of reproduction.Green cuttings should root in the first half of the summer.Do not be amiss to use as fertilizer special IAA.In addition, you need to know that the cuttings of young trees grow much faster and easier than the old (over 20 years).

Features pruning oaks

Members of this family of trees like meticulous care, despite the fact that they are considered wild.Especially in the procedure affects crop yields.Oak - tree with monopodial branching.Consequently, the main stem should continue to grow until the end of life of the plant.At the top of this should not be limited in height.She always dominates over the other shoots.

Pruning should be done every few years.The best period of the removal of the branches will be in early spring or late winter.It is important that the temperature in this case was not below -5 ° C.Otherwise, the field will be cut frostbite.By the summer, these branches wither to the ground.If there will be a large number, then the whole tree dies.Removal should only be subject to new shoots, gains and diseased branches.

useful and harmful properties of oak

In medical purposes often use bark and young branches of the tree and acorns, at least - leaves.In the upper layers of the trunk of an oak contains a lot of resin acids, sugar and pectin.The composition of such fruits useful include substances such as organic oils, proteins, starch.The young leaves have a tannin component, colorants and pentosans group.Thanks to this wood and fruit produced effective anti sredstva.Takzhe well known antispasmodic properties of oak.For example, the bark of the tree effectively helps in colitis, intestinal bleeding, gastritis, diseases of the spleen and liver.Infusions of oak enhances mental and physical activity, calm the central nervous system, improves the permeability of the vascular system.

On the other hand, preparations on the basis of this plant is contraindicated in children and patients suffering from constipation, hemorrhoids, nausea, stomach ulcers.

Resource Usage

Oaks in most cases, are used in building and cooking, as well as in the light industry.Sawdust makes cork and furniture.Wood is ideal for surface ships, fortifications, machine construction, manufacture of barrels.The boards do not swell, poorly lit, different strength, hardness and density.

When blooming oak leaves and acorns ripen, the time comes to cooking.In North America, the fruit of the tree is often added to coffee, candy and the most exquisite dishes.In Asia, acorns consumed fried with spices.