At a distance of 2 billion light years from our home is the most powerful and deadly object of our entire universe.Quasar - a dazzling beam of energy, the length of which amounts to several billion kilometers.Scientists can not learn this until the end of the object.
What is a quasar
Today, astronomers around the world are trying to study quasars, their origin and function.Numerous studies show that the quasar - a huge, endlessly moving cauldron of deadly gas.The most powerful source of energy of the object is inside, in the heart of a quasar.This is a huge black hole.Quasar weighs as much as a billion suns weigh.
Quasar absorbs everything that comes in his way.The black hole breaks the entire stars and galaxies, sucking them inward so long until they are fully erased or dissolved in it.To date, a quasar - it is the worst thing that can only be in the universe.
deep sky objects
quasars - the most distant and brightest objects in the known universe by mankind.In the 60s of the last century, s
assumed that the radio emission comes not from the quasar, and the rays of which it is surrounded.Quasars are still one of the most mysterious objects that are far beyond the galaxy.To date, very few people can tell us about quasars.What is it and how to construct these celestial bodies will be able to answer only the most experienced astronomers and scientists.The only thing to prove that quasars emit huge amounts of energy.It is equal to that emit 3 million suns!Some quasars emit up to 100 times more energy than all the stars in our galaxy.Interestingly, all of the above quasar is at a point approximately equal to the solar system.
Radiation and magnitude of quasars
Traces of previous galaxies around quasars were discovered.To recognize them as objects with redshift, which are electromagnetic radiation with radio waves and visible light, and have a very small angular dimensions.These factors before the discovery of quasars was not allowed to tell them the stars - point sources.On the contrary, extended sources rather correspond to the shape of galaxies.For comparison, the average ratio of the value of the brightest quasar is 12.6, and the brightest star - 1.45.
Where are the mysterious celestial objects
black holes, pulsars and quasars are quite far away from us.They are the most distant celestial bodies in the universe.Quasars are the largest infrared radiation.By spectral analysis, astronomers are able to determine the speed of movement of various objects, the distance between them and between them and the Earth.
If the quasar light is red, it means that it is moving in the direction of the Earth.The more redness - the farther away the quasar and its speed increases.All kinds of quasars are moving at very high speeds, which in turn is endlessly changing.It is proved that the velocity of quasars comes to the level of 240 thousand. Km / sec., Which is almost 80% of the speed of light!
We will not see the modern quasars
Since it is the most distant object from us, but today we see their movements that occurred billions of years ago.Since the light only managed to reach our Earth.Most likely, the most distant, and therefore it is the oldest quasars.Space allows us to see them as they were only about 10 billion years ago.We can assume that some of them have ceased to exist today.
What are quasars
Though this phenomenon is studied and is not enough, but, according to preliminary data, a quasar - a huge black hole.Her mother accelerates its movement when the funnel hole draws matter, which leads to heating of the particles and their friction against each other and the total weight of the perpetual motion of matter.The speed of the molecules becomes a quasar with every second more, and the temperature is higher.Strong friction of the particles determines the allocation of a huge amount of light and other types of radiation, such as X-rays.Every year, black holes can absorb the mass of our sun alone.Once laced into a deadly funnel weight absorb the energy released will spread radiation in two directions: along the northern and southern poles of the quasar.Astronomers call this unusual "space plane".
Recent observations show the astronomers that most of these celestial objects are in the center of elliptical galaxies.According to one of the theories of the origin of quasars, they are young galaxies where massive black hole absorbs surrounding her stuff.The founders of the theory say that the light source appears this hole accretion disk.It is located in the center of the galaxy, and it follows that the spectral red shift of quasars over cosmological exactly the amount of gravitational shift.It had previously predicted by Einstein in his general theory of relativity.
Quasars often compared to the lighthouses of the universe.They are visible from the farthest distance, thanks to them study its evolution and structure.With the help of the "heavenly beacon" to study the distribution of any substance in the line of sight.Namely, the strongest absorption lines of hydrogen are transformed into line redshift absorption.
Version scientists about quasars
There is another scheme.Quasar, according to some scholars - is emerging young galaxy.The evolution of galaxies little studied, because humanity is much younger than they are.Perhaps quasars - this early state of formation of galaxies.We can assume that the release of their energy comes from the youngest active nuclei of new galaxies.
Other astronomers do believe quasars points in space where the new matter in the Universe originates.Their hypothesis proves the exact opposite of a black hole.Humanity will take a lot of time to explore the stigmata of the quasars.
The first detected quasars opened Matthews and Sandage in 1960.It was located in the constellation Virgo.Rather, it is associated with 16 stars of this constellation.After three years, Mathews said that this object has a huge red spectral shift.The only factor in proving that it was not a star, it was the release of large amounts of energy in a relatively small region of space.
human history began with the study of quasars and measure with a special program apparent angular size of the radioactive sources.
In 1963 quasars have numbered about 5. In the same year, Dutch astronomers have shown the spectral lines shift to the red spectrum.They have proven that this is due to the cosmological displacement as a result of their removal, so the distance can be calculated by the Hubble law.Almost immediately, two more scientists Yuri Efremov and A. Sharov discovered light variability discovered quasars.Through photometric images, they found that the variable has a frequency of only a few days.
One of the closest quasar (3C 273) has a redshift and shine, corresponding to the distance of about 3 mldr.light years.The most distant objects in the sky hundreds of times faster than ordinary galaxies glow.They are easy to register by means of modern telescopes at a distance of 12 billion light-years or more.Recently, a new quasar has been registered at a distance of 13.5 billion light years from Earth.
is difficult to calculate exactly how many quasars observed today.This is both because of the constant discovery of new objects, as well as due to lack of a clear boundary between the active galaxies and quasars.In 1987 he published a list of registered quasars in the amount of 3594, in 2005 there were more than 195 ths., But now their number has exceeded 200 thousand.
Originally, the term "quasar" refers to a class of objects that are visible (optical) between verylike a star.But they have a number of differences: a strong radio emission and small angular size (& lt; 100).
This original idea of these bodies has developed in the time of their discovery.And it is true now, but scientists have yet to recognize and radiospokoynye quasars.They do not create such a strong radiation.As of 2015, these objects were about 90% of all known.
today the stigmata of quasars is determined by the movement of the red spectrum.If you found the body in space, having similar offset and releasing a powerful flow of energy, then he has every chance to carry the name "quasar".
Conclusion To date, astronomers have about two thousand of these celestial bodies.The main tool for the study of quasars is the Hubble Space Telescope.Since the technical progress of mankind can not fail to delight with their success, it can be assumed that in the future we will unravel the mystery of what quasars and black holes.Perhaps they are a kind of "dustbin", which absorbs all the unnecessary objects, and maybe they are the centers and the energy of the universe.