Parliamentarism - a system of state management of society, which is characterized by a clear separation of legislative and executive functions.At the same time the highest legislative body should hold a privileged position.This article discusses what parliamentarianism in Russia and other countries, the stages of its formation and characteristics.
What is Parliament?
Parliament - is the supreme representative body of the state.He works on a regular basis, and elected by the population of the country.It was his interaction with other state bodies is called the "parliamentary".This institute is also characterized by the rule in the legislative field.
Parliament performs certain functions: representative, integrative and regulatory.The first is that it is the expression of the will of citizens.The people as a single source of support and supreme power authorizes Parliament on its behalf to fulfill the legislative role.Integrative function is that it is a national authority to solve problems.Also, t
parliamentarism Parliamentarism - a system of interaction between state and society.His formal and legal attributes, which one way or another in the Constitution are the following
- Differentiation of legislative and executive power.
- privileged status of parliamentarians and their legal independence from the voters.
There are other signs, but they are not enshrined in law.
parliamentarism is not linked to specific forms of government.This phenomenon is characteristic of every modern democratic country.Russian parliamentarism acts as a consequence historically conditioned socio-political development of the state.
From the history of world parliamentarism
Even in the VI.BC.e.Athens of the richest citizens elected collegial body - the Council of four.But the emergence of parliamentarism in its modern sense is happening in the XIII century.This is due to the emergence in England of a special representative body.However, the real power of the Parliament receives only after the revolutions XVII-XVIII centuries.Then, in most Western European countries appear representative legislature.
In 1688 in England was passed the Bill of Rights, which was first defined the place of Parliament in the government.Then behind him were reserved legislative powers.Also, there was one of the main principles of parliamentarism.He proclaimed the responsibility of ministers to the representative body of the legislature.
In 1727 for the first time in the UK parliament was formed on party basis.
Start of development of parliamentarism in Russia
Parliamentarism - is first and foremost one of the institutions of democracy.In Russia it has appeared recently.But the beginnings of parliamentarism can be seen even in the times of Kievan Rus.One of the authorities in this country was a popular Chamber.This meeting is the institution through which the people involved in solving social problems.The Chamber could participate all the free inhabitants of the Kievan state.
next stage of development of parliamentarism in Russia - is the emergence of the Zemsky Sobor.They played a major role in the legislative process.Zemsky Sobor consisted of two chambers.As part of the top officials were, the higher clergy, members of the Boyar Duma.At the bottom were the representatives elected from among the nobility and the townspeople.
In the later period of absolute monarchy developed the idea of parliamentarism, but there was no special legislature, uncontrolled emperor.
Parlamentizatsiya country in the XX century
beginning of the revolution in 1905 marked the country's transition from monarchy to constitutional order and the beginning of parliamentarism.This year, the Emperor signed the highest manifestos.They established a new representative zakonosoveschatelnogo authority in the country - the State Duma.Since then, no act has not come into force without its approval.
In 1906, was created by Parliament, composed of two chambers.Bottom - the State Duma and the upper - the Council of State.Both chambers were located legislative initiative.The projects are sent to the emperor.The upper house of nature was polupredstavitelnym body.One of its Chairman is appointed by the Emperor, and the other is elected from among the nobility, the clergy, the big traders, and so on. D. The lower house was a kind of representative body.
Parliamentarism in Soviet Russia
After the October Revolution was completely destroyed the old system of state power.At the same time, it was reinterpreted, and the very notion of "parliamentarism".It created a new supreme organ of state power - the Congress of Soviets.It was formed through elections, which took place in several stages, from the chairmen of the local assembly.The system of representation has been arranged in such a way that the majority of the Soviets belonged to the workers, not peasants.This congress did not work on a permanent basis.That is why from its membership elected the All-Russian Executive Committee of Soviets.He worked on a permanent basis and has legislative and executive branches.Later it was created Upper Council.The department has a legislative function and is elected by direct secret ballot.
parliamentarism in Russia at the present stage
the Constitution of 1993 in Russia has installed a new system of government.Today, for the structure of the country is characterized by the rule of law and the leading role of the parliament.
The structure of the Federal Assembly consists of two chambers.The first - the Council of the Federation, the second - the State Duma.For the first time the lower house of the Russian parliament began its work in December 1993.It consisted of 450 members.