multiparty - it is good or bad?Political scientists from different countries can not clearly answer the question.On the one hand, it gives the opportunity to express our opinion the most diverse sectors of society and defend its power.On the other - there is confusion in the political life of any country.
organized under the desk understand, the most active part of society, which is based on their own interests, formulated a program and aims to implement it by means of participation in power or in its grip.The existence of various political organizations and their interactions determines the party system of the state.There are three types of such systems.Multi-party system - is the first of them.It is defined by the presence of more than two political organizations that have real chances to come to power.The one-party system formed under the domination of a single party in the country and the state ban on the action of opposition political alliances.In the UK, the United States, there
Limbo parties in Russia
In the early 20th century, is the establishment of a multiparty system in Russia.This process is characterized by a number of significant features.Firstly, the very first, even illegally, they began to take shape the political organization of the revolutionary, radical clerics.Thus, the Social Democrats held their first congress in 1898.Legal registration of parties took place during the first Russian revolution, after the famous Manifesto of October 17 of 1905, which introduced civil and political freedom for the residents of the Russian Empire.Another feature is the fact that the leading role in a wide range of intellectuals formed unions, many of which were small enough, all the while there was a process of organization and dissolution of some others.Thus, the multi-party system - this is the true characteristic of political life in Russia in the early twentieth century.
left, right and center
As already noted, in the early 20th century in Russia, there were several dozen parties, the study of which is quite difficult.To better understand that was a Russian multi-party system, all political organizations are divided into three groups.The first is the radical, revolutionary association, also known as left-wing.Right Sector - conservative, reactionary unions opposed to any innovation and transformation.For centrists rank political organizations with moderate programs behind liberal gradual transformation of society.
Revolutionary Party of Russia
the beginning of the last century Russian society was enmeshed number of serious contradictions that arise in connection with the development of capitalism.In Soviet historiography, they were called "core issues."These include agricultural or peasant question, the worker, the question of power and national.Anyway, all the political forces should indicate the main ways of solving these problems.The most radical in this sense were the Bolsheviks - the RSDLP (b), calling for a socialist revolution, the nationalization of land and enterprises, the elimination of private ownership and the transition to socialism as such.Thought leaders and organizers are well-known Vladimir Ulyanov (Lenin).Were less radical Mensheviks - RSDLP (m), who believed that Russian history has not izmolola the flour from which it is necessary to bake a cake socialism.Their leader, Julius Martov advocated bourgeois-democratic revolution and a gradual solution to the main issues.A special place in the left block occupied by the Socialist-Revolutionaries (SRs), who positioned themselves as the defenders of the peasants, who continue the traditions of populism.They advocated the socialization of the land, ie the transfer of its communities.Headed Viktor Chernov SRs.Along with these there were other Russian revolutionary parties such as the Popular Socialists, Socialist-maximalists, Trudoviks and a wide range of national revolutionary groups (Bund, Revolutionary Ukrainian Party, and others).
As such, the multi-party system in Russia there was a legal registration liberal centrist parties.In the First and Second State Dumas the greatest number, but not the vast majority, took the Cadets, who are called the left centrists.They demanded a partial alienation of the landlords' land to the peasants and limited monarchy parliament and the constitution, further reforms.A recognized leader of the Cadets was a historian Pavel Milyukov.The main political force in the period of the Third and Fourth Dumas was the Octobrist Party, whose representatives acknowledged the great importance for the history of Russian manifesto of October 17.Alexander Guchkov, who led the movement that defended the interests of the big bourgeoisie, which is expected to calm the country and further economic growth.Octo so called conservative liberals.
very great composition, but little organized at the beginning of the last century was the right political sector.Monarchists, the Black Hundreds, the Conservatives - it's all about them.Russian Emperor Nicholas II was an honorary member of several parties, though differing in name but had a common political program.Its essence was to return to unlimited autocracy, orthodoxy and protect the unity of Russia.Not recognizing the First State Duma, conservative part of society are not organized and did not participate in the elections.But subsequent events have shown that we can not completely retiring from the political legal struggle in parliament.Representatives of the "Union of the Archangel Michael", "Union of Russian People" and other movements fully supported the policy of Nicholas II.And against his opponents used violent methods, such as riots.
After coming to power of the Bolsheviks 25 October 1917 multiparty system in Russia is gradually destroyed.First, left the political arena monarchist association, Octo, in November were declared outlawed the Cadets.A few years persisted revolutionary parties, including the main opponents of the Bolsheviks were the SRs, who took the majority of seats in the general elections to the Constituent Assembly.But performance against Lenin and his supporters during the Civil War and immediately after its completion led to a merciless struggle against political opponents of the Bolsheviks.In the years 1921-1923 in Soviet Russia, a number of court proceedings against the leaders of the Mensheviks and SRs, after which belong to these parties was regarded as an insult and a curse.As a result, multi-party system in the USSR was absent.To approve the ideological and political domination of one party - the Communist Party.
formation of a multiparty system in modern Russia
collapse of the Soviet political system occurred in the period of perestroika, Gorbachev pursued.One of the important steps in the formation of multi-party system in modern Russia was the decision on the abolition of article 6 of the USSR Constitution, adopted in 1977.It enshrines a special and leading role of the communist ideology in the country, and, by and large, meant the monopoly of one party to power.After the coup, putsch in August 1990, the President of the Russian Federation in general prohibited action of the Communist Party on its territory.By this time, the new multi-party system took shape in Russia.With its first united by the presence of a huge number of political organizations are not significantly different from each other their views in a single direction.Many researchers have noted a fairly narrow social base of the majority, so call them "proto".Widespread national movements in the republics, known as the "Popular Front".
main political forces
in the 90s among the many political organizations, several major who began to lead each other to fight for seats in the Duma.In elections in 1995, he decided the leaders of the Quartet, which was able to overcome the barrier of five per cent.These same political forces and characterize the current multi-party system in Russia.First, the Communists led by the permanent leader, has repeatedly acted as a presidential candidate - Gennady Zyuganov.Secondly - the Liberal Democratic Party, with the same constant and bright head - Vladimir Zhirinovsky.A government unit, the name was changed several times over the past decades ("Our Home is Russia", "United Russia").And fourth, a place of honor, held the party "Yabloko", headed by Grigory Yavlinsky.However, since 2003 it was unable to overcome the position of the barrier in the elections and has since been part of the representative legislative body.Most of the parties in Russia belongs to the centrist direction, they have similar requirements and programs.Left and right are called only by tradition.
Most political analysts agree that the multi-party system - is not the best option of the political development of the country.The states with the two-party system is more predictable in its development, are more likely to avoid the extremes to preserve the succession.Multi-party system - a concept that has both legal and practical sense.In the first case, there are many formal unions, but real chances to come to power have only one or two.The real multi-party system suggests that no political force can not get a parliamentary majority.In this case, the coalition organized, temporary and permanent.