for the international arms market is characterized by competition, sometimes wearing very fierce.Advanced technologically country vying offer samples of rockets, mines, bombs, tanks, aircraft and ships, each of which has a number of advantages over rival products.They compete with each other and all kinds of firearms.The ability to hit with the least number of misses, to resist the destructive effects, perform reliably are valued members of the armed forces of all countries.We can proudly claim that the Russian samples are quite competitive on this particular market, and our designers can create advanced technical masterpieces of art on the verge of art.
End of an era "Kalashnikov"?
Russian firearms deservedly enjoyed the fame thanks to its deadliness, reliability and simplicity.The most striking example - the famous "Kalashnikov", the production of which requires a relatively low cost, and combat effectiveness rolls.This explains the unique fact that the main current small arms of the Russian ar
«Kalash" - a unique machine.He can shoot in almost any conditions, from polar cold to the African heat.His overweening dust and dirt.It is inexpensive.AK has far.Disassemble and assemble even a schoolboy in a minute.Shoe as a lubricant, is very simple.Dignity, the dignity and the dignity again.
But there are drawbacks.It is difficult to maintain accurate fire in short bursts.Rate (six hundred rounds per minute) sets a high consumption of ammunition.Remove your finger from the time the trigger is almost impossible for the second out of the trunk takes off ten rounds.You can shoot single, but then turns into automatic carbine and loses its fundamental advantages.A soldier has to carry a heavy load - ammo and horns.In modern war, such a burden is not always acceptable.From the American M-16 can fire more accurately, but it has a significant flaw - lower compared with the "Kalashnikov" reliability.Can handguns combine two advantages at the same time - the accuracy and reliability?To answer this question tried in the Soviet Union, declaring and conducting a secret contest for engineering development, code-named "Abakan".
contest "Abakan", 1981
begun work to prepare for the competition in 1978, for the development of the State Commission took three years.The conditions were tough.If we change the famed AK on something else, something new weapons must be not just better, but surpass the usual pattern for our soldiers on all counts, and at times.Accuracy - ten times more efficient.Weight - less.The design versatile.And all the other parameters are also better, on average, doubled.
By 1981, the finalists were determined.They were engineers from Tula Korobov, Stechkin, and an expert on Small Arms of Izhevsk GN Nikonov.That Gennady Nikolayevich could think of something hitherto unprecedented.He presented the machine, the main advantage of which, as the highlight of the design, was the recoil momentum shifted.What is it, then no one knew except the creator.Automatic Nikonov won.The secret of the design managed to keep even in the years when nearly all Soviet military secrets were presented the "progressive world community."But more on that below.
tests in troops
After the contest construction machine called AN-94 "Abakan" (of course, where this word) have modified, upgraded, and then tested, not only in landfills.The first troops to the new product was received with incredulity that, in general, is characteristic of all the military, and not only here.But in the end, and the soldiers and officers appreciate her.Shoot come from different uncomfortable positions, including the "lying", "sitting" and "knee."The soldiers were convinced precision fire.The Commission confirmed the fact that the automatic AN-94 "Abakan" meets all the stated TTD.We can say that new weapons to our military had in mind.It was "handiness", that is convenient to bear a hand in (a quality much appreciated by all those involved in weapons, whether combat or hunting), convenient and easy to do.
What is shifted momentum?
Another refinement of the structure was carried out in 1985, the field of arms which was given the name of the AFM, which is encrypted in the main "trick", causes high precision and accuracy - shifted pulse.What it is, is still the general public as ours and foreign, unknown.Theoretically, you can get a sample of this machine to measure it all possible ultra-precise devices, including laser, a detailed examination, to weigh, to determine the material of manufacture and even copy.But the principle will remain a mystery.According to the designer, GN Nikonov, take many years to foreign colleagues were able to understand what had happened, and he shared his secret for obvious reasons, does not want to.We can only judge the effectiveness of this invention by the result.And it is impressive.
all types of firearms, as well as people, have advantages, disadvantages in transition smoothly.In particular, the high rate turns high and inefficient consumption of ammunition.The fact is that after the sighting arrow pulls the trigger, and the bullet flies first wherever he wants.But the second is usually emitted from the barrel machine about one tenth of a second, the time is quite enough to stem turned down for benefits.The third, fourth and all subsequent shots, and if you get somewhere, you probably accidentally, than logically.The design of the AN-94 "Abakan" provide a specific firing mode, which allows the system to neutralize this defect.It has three firing modes: single (for translators indicated as "OD") bursts (AB) and another one with the mysterious figure "2".Here in this modest tsiferki whole point.Translating lever in this position, you can be sure that will fly out of the barrel only two bullets, with a negligible pause time corresponding to the rate of three times higher than normal.At the hearing, even impossible to understand that there were two shots, they merge.Between them, the distance is so small that the barrel has no time to swerve, and they both fly to the aiming point, lying almost next door.Such is the "sweet couple".
Unification of ammunition
One of the conditions of the contest "Abakan" was an opportunity to use standardized mass-produced ammunition.Automatic Nikonov AN-94 shooting standard chuck 5.45 (length 39 mm), which is used for AK-47 and RPK-74 machine gun.This principle is respected and for the reception of the store.Possible to use three kinds of cones: standard of AK-47 (30 pcs.), A machine-gun (45 pcs.) Or special (60 pcs.), Wherein the cartridges are arranged in four rows.Using a grenade launcher is also not a problem.It is mounted on a rod, located under the barrel, at the same time serving for the moving guide rod assembly mechanism.
Many details of automatic AN-94 "Abakan" are made of heavy-duty plastic, which corresponds to modern trends, determining the perspective directions of development of the weapons industry.Butt made convertible to the right side, which can be attributed to the few design errors.Shoot a gun handy only when it is thrown back.The mobile receiver and a casing made of plastic, too, that lowered just two "harmful" for weapons option.Reduced noise of shooting and up to 3 kg 850 g of reduced weight.Metal parts are made of steel with the high precision, which is famous for "Izhmash".Weapons are able to do.
The design of sight is considered the experience of previous models and provides the possibility of long-term development.Staffing device includes adjustable front and rear sights dioptric action, equipped with five possible positions (apertures).It is made in the form of a five-pointed star, the rays of which are marked holes.
manufacturing of firearms standard combined arms destination does not involve the installation of special means of warfare in difficult conditions, but took into account the possibility of acquisition Nikonov additional optical or night (infrared) or red-dot sight, why the left of the main pillar has an additional multi-purpose strap.
Automation applied in the design of the AN-94 "Abakan", based on the principle of flue gas and trehvariantnogo mode of fire.In the case of the mode of firing bursts (AB), the first two rounds will be issued with a rate of 1,800 rounds per minute, and the rest - 600 Br. / Min.Weight less than four kilograms of weapons, with unfolded butt length - 943 mm, with a folded - 728 mm.The barrel length of 405 mm ensures a high initial rate increases compared with a Kalashnikov penetrating power and accuracy (up to 1000 m).In general, the machine is good.But ...
person familiar with the weapon is not hearsay, and provided with appropriate technical instructions, see this machine for the first time, disassemble it for about half an hour.As much it will spend on its assembly, which is made in the reverse order.In these times it will go faster, but the availability of sufficiently complex parts and steel cable to be pulled on video, still require a few minutes of time."Abakan" blindfolded disassemble-assemble, the more quickly possible.This is not a "Kalashnikov".
course designer provides all the possibilities to facilitate maintenance.Original and easy, just intuitively removed and placed "vosmerkoobrazny" muzzle brake.It must simply turn half a turn and pull off towards the front.In general, making a lot of beautiful, no unnecessary details, complexity is minimized.
too complex or simple enough?
traditionally believed that the weapons of the Russian army due to its multiplicity is simply obliged to be simple.More than one million the number of personnel in itself says that there are people of different intellectual level, and if the soldiers will not be able to master this artless a thing as your own machine, the inevitable problems.Disassembly-assembly "Abakan" binomial theorem can not be named, but argue that it is a trifling thing, too, is not necessary.By the way, this problem is not only Russia.American soldiers in Vietnam is only allowed to marvel our "Kalashnikov", its simplicity and reliability.Many of them are happy to have it changed his M-16, despite the best accuracy and precision shooting.What is the use of these good qualities if in contact with a small amount of dirt or sand weapons in general does not want to shoot?Of course, the AN-97 is better than the M-16.But the harder and more expensive than AC.
production base for the new model was the "Izhmash".Weapons of this type are produced at this plant since 1988, but are limited to a relatively small batches, special units of the Armed Forces and the police.A decision on the complete replacement of AK on the AN-94 was adopted in 1997, but for various reasons, including financial constraints, the basic model is still nevertheless "Kalashnikov".With all the designer quest for simplicity, achieve its still not fully succeeded.AN-94 "Abakan" a bit more complicated of its predecessor, and yet controlled him with confidence can only professionals.It is possible that ordinary soldiers have mastered this science, but you can only find this out experimentally.
In addition, a large-scale re-imposing budget requires time and costs for re-training of personnel.