Based on what principles of a functioning state?What is the evolution of the forms of political organization of society?What are the basic principles for the implementation of power entities of public administration in modern countries and, in particular, in Russia?
What is the state?
Before examining what the structure and functions of the state, to determine the actual same time, what is meant by such.Theoretical concepts on this account, there are many.Among the most common - the following definition.State - a complex system of interaction between people who are united on the basis of national or territorial identity, created to guarantee the basic principles of the quality of life, security and freedom for every citizen.
People consciously preferring accommodation in appropriate circumstances, enter into "social contract" with the government, "delegating" management is the government (Parliament) or implementing self-government on the principles of justice and reflect the public interest.The e
As the territory of the state "leaders" is no longer at all missed.Or, between contradictions began to appear in need of improvement models of self-government.First, the "leader" began to concentrate in the hands of fewer leaders - in the end, the only king.Later they began to appear elected authorities.For example, the structure of the ancient Russian state included the Institute of National Chamber.In European countries began to form parliamentary structures.In a more or less modern form of political control of sovereign states were formed in the late 17th - early 18th centuries.There were theories, reflecting the principles of separation of powers.In some states, they have been introduced into practice.Now they operate according to the political systems of most countries.
defined the key focus of our small study, we can begin to learn what the structure and functions of the state.Let's start with the first term.
Determining the structure of the state
What is the "structure of the State"?According to the popular among Russian political analysts definition, a system of political institutions and institutions that perform the functions necessary to implement the relevant actors of power management.The structure of the state in its present form is most often expressed as a range of different bodies, divided into three functional levels: legislative, executive and judicial.Which, in turn, break down a large number of structural units responsible for specific areas in the implementation of the policy governing the country - ministries, agencies, committees, and so on. D.
Some experts distinguish a separate element in the structure of state militaryforce, as well as bodies formed in the event of an emergency emergencies - such was, for example, the interim government during the revolution of 1917, was not originally provided for in the applicable laws of the country.The competence and the range of powers vested in the respective government structures, defined goals and objectives of the subjects of political management.There
terms more consonant with the subject, but it is a different scientific categories.To those, for example, is such a thing as "the social structure of the state."It involves the classification of the population of certain groups on the basis of the socio-political status of the citizens.As an option - they belong to classes.That is, for example, the social structure of the state of the Middle Ages could be represented by groups such as peasants, the bourgeoisie, the landowners, the nobles, and so on. D. The political elements of the government institutions and the term is thus quite mediocre attitude.
Is the concept of "state structure".In some contexts, it may be a synonym under consideration.But as a rule, it represents a kind of political unit, the company or organization that has something to do with the state.That is, for example, the government - it is certainly a state structure.As well as, for example, the Federal State Institution "Information Technology Center".Or JSC "Gazprom".All of this - the state structures.Eat studied in this small study, a generic term in those contexts where it comes to the respective institution or organization should be careful to avoid semantic errors.
term "structure of the state" is often overlaps with another concept - "political tool".By and large, both - the phenomenon of the same order.They reflect the principles and mechanisms, on the basis of which the government is implementing its commitments under the social contract.However, if the structure of the state - a set of institutions, that is more of a "toolkit" of power, the political functions - this, according to the popular view, the key objectives and tasks for which the respective governments are.You can say that the "function" to some extent determine "structure."Under the current challenges associated with the management of the political process, to create specific institutions formed the power structure of the state.
In modern political science to classify the political functions of internal and external.The former include legislative, law enforcement, economic, social, cultural and environmental features.The second group - defensive and diplomatic (some experts identify within it as "collaborative", the essence of which is in building friendships and partnerships in the international arena).
principle of separation of powers
Above we noted that in the political structure of modern states implemented the principle of separation of powers.What it is?As it is arranged within the structure of the mechanism of the state?It is assumed that power is divided into three main functional branches - legislative, executive and judicial.Each of them operates independently in terms of addressing entrusted by the Constitution or other legal acts of problems, but at the same time working within a certain community of the key objectives.
In this connection, there was a need for the separation of powers?According to the extended theoretical concept, this kind of structure of the mechanism of the state - the result of the development of democratic processes and the gradual formation in the socio-political consciousness criterion: the power should not be concentrated in any particular institution or in the hands of the individual.Thus, the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are designed to mutually limit the authority with a view to minimizing the likelihood of key political usurpation of competence.
political structure of the state today, as a rule, implies the existence of the parliamentary authorities.Which is the highest institutions of the legislature.Parliament has the following main features: the development of legislation, representation of interests of different social groups in the policy, as well as control over the executive.
implemented in most modern countries in the mechanism of the state, the concept and its structure, conceptualized in political theory, imply that the system of governance is not only parliamentary but also government institutions.Which is the supreme executive authority.The functions of government institutions - ministries, agencies, services (if the condition is described accepted in Russia mechanism of the state - the concept and structure it in a domestic political science in general, do not cause debates) - reduced to the correct implementation adopted at the parliamentary level, legal acts and subordinate sources- decrees, resolutions and so on. d.
In turn, the judiciary resolves issues related to the legal practice in terms of the laws.Or, as is the case in some countries, she publishes sources of law in the form of precedents, complementing the functions of legislative and executive bodies, which form the mechanism of the state.The concept and structure of the case law is significantly different from the so-called "Roman" system functioning laws when adopting legal acts courts are not directly involved.
Which of the two models is more effective - the subject of intense debate.Anyway, the world is more common "Roman" system, including in Russia.Case law is most developed in the USA and the UK.
State and law
Above we noted that the need for a state appeared when people wished to provide itself guarantee policies for security, freedom of appropriate quality of life.Over time, this "wish" was transformed into a law or set of such.Their observance has now become mandatory criterion.Therefore, not enough to in the framework of a political system functioned only a balanced structure of the state.And the rights of citizens and must be implemented unconditionally.
criteria by which the political system of a country is defined as the ability to key human and civil rights, are very different.In many ways, their essence is defined by prevailing social traditions and culture of the people.In some states, for example, the right to express political interests is not considered a priority.The other is made to the country has all the necessary resources for the implementation of the needs of citizens to speak publicly about their own identity in the ruling.The structure of the state and law there - both in terms of theoretical concepts of the ideal political system in academia, and in the key subjects of practice management - including the mandatory presence of relevant institutions.
Some experts consider legitimate to allocate the basic components of the political power, common to all types of government institutions.Among those - the powers, rights, incentives and accountability.Indeed, they are present in the political systems, regardless of whether in fact presents the structure, shape state.Even if we consider the examples of the organization of the institutions of power in historical periods when there was no separation of powers, political management of these components are always present.However, each of them is believed to modern political science, it should be balanced in terms of marketability on the part of the specific subject of the governmental functions.That is, with the passage of time and the natural process of political development elaborated concepts and principles to produce a system of governance in compliance with this criterion.The theory of the separation of powers, according to political analysts, has become one of the key approaches of improvements theorists and practitioners of public administration to seek a balance between the four main components of political management.
modern elements of the state mechanism
obvious that the structure, form of the state to evolve over time.This is what we observed at the beginning of the article: first, were "leaders", then kings, later appeared the parliament and the separation of powers.How did the "structured" modern state?Political scientists distinguish the relevant elements of the political mechanism.Depending on the criteria for determining the country may vary.In Russia, according to the common point of view, this kind of elements are classified as:
- governments (federal, regional and municipal level);
- state organizations (the security forces, service control, supervision and so on. D.);
- public institutions (schools, hospitals, libraries, and so on. D.);
In some countries, some of the above elements may thus advantageously be private.In Russia, they are the state (according to some analysts, mainly due to historical traditions and principles of governance, established in Soviet times).
What is "authority"
dwell on the element of the first type, that is, the government.What are its key features?Modern scientific concepts that define what should look like a form of state, the concept and the structure of it, include the following set of criteria.Thus, the authority:
- formed the basis of the will of the subjects of political control;
- carries out activities to identify the source of law;
- has an organizational structure which clearly defines the attributes legally;
- has certain competences, rights, duties;
- working in a particular area (across the country as a whole, in a particular region, city).
Among the additional features characterizing the authorities - the availability of material resources (separate buildings, communications and so on. D.), Distribution systems functional authority employees (ranks, positions), accountable to higher power structures.
State and municipalities
How does the concept and structure of the state are related to the implementation of the principles of municipal government?The main delimiting criterion here - the relevance of the tasks at an appropriate level of implementation of the authorities.Municipality - a localized administrative and territorial unit - city, district, county.The range of tasks, the solution of which is entrusted to local government entities, as a rule, different from that which is typical for federal power structures.The modern form of the state, the concept and the structure of it, which taken as a basic theoretical concepts in scientific schools involve a considerable degree of autonomy of municipalities - simply because acting in the local aspect, the authorities will most likely solve the urgent problems more efficiently thanhigher structures of political governance.
What about the practice of distinguishing the relevant authority in Russia?The terms "public" and "municipal" in the power of the laws of the Russian Federation demarcated.However, the key principles of political management systems implemented by the subjects of the political control of both types, according to many political analysts, and as evidenced by the formulation of a large number of laws that are very similar, sometimes virtually identical.In many aspects of the "state" and "municipal" authorities in Russia are different except the name.
however accepted in many schools of political theory of the structure of the state implies that the quality management of the country is possible only if a substantial autonomy of decision of problems at the municipal level.Therefore, despite the external similarity of the principles, the power at the federal, regional and local level should be carried out in Russia with enough tangible subjects of its implementation of autonomy.