Usually history of Eastern Europe, which was inhabited by Slavs, beginning to explore the founding of Kievan Rus.According to the official theory, this is the first state in these lands, which was known in the world, with him were considered and respected by the rulers.One after another, there are ancient cities in ancient Russia, and this process is stopped only with the invasion of the Mongols.With the invasion of hordes goes into oblivion, and the state itself, fragmented among the many descendants of the princes.But we will talk about his heyday, will tell you what were the ancient cities of Russia.
little about the country
term "Ancient Russia" is usually referred to as a state united around Kiev, which existed from the ninth to the middle of the thirteenth centuries.In fact, it was the union of the principalities, with a population of the eastern Slavs, are subject to the Grand Duke.Union held the vast territory had its own army (the squad), established by the law.
When ancient city in anci
emergence of cities in ancient Russia was of a stormy character.Not for nothing in the annals of Western Gardariki it is called, that is, the country towns.From written sources dating back to IX-X centuries, it is known about the 24 major towns, but we can assume that it is much more.The names of these settlements were typically Slavic.For example, Novgorod, Vyshgorod, Beloozero, Przemysl.By the end of the twelfth century, the role of cities in ancient Russia was truly invaluable: there were already 238, they were well fortified, were the center of politics, trade, education and culture.
structure and characteristics of the settlements in the old city
in Ancient Russia - the settlement for which carefully choose the place.The area should be comfortable in terms of defense.On the hill, as a rule, in the department of the river, was constructed fortified part of the (Kremlin).Dwelling houses were located close to the river in the lowland or, as they say, on the hem.Thus, the first city of ancient Russia consisted of the central part - the citadel, well-protected, and more convenient, but less secure parts of the trade and craft.A little later in the settlements occur Posada or foothills.
ancient city in ancient Russia were built not of stone, as the majority of settlements in Western Europe at that time, and made of wood.Hence, there was the verb "to cut" the city rather than build.Strengthening of the barrier formed a ring of wooden frame filled with earth.Get inside it was only possible through the gate.
is worth noting that in ancient Rus called the city not only locality, but the fence, fortification, fortress.In addition to the citadel, which houses the main buildings (Cathedral Square, the treasury, the library), and trade and handicraft quarter was certainly trade area and the school.
mother of Russian cities
It is this epithet awarded historians hail the chief of state.The capital of ancient Russia was the city of Kiev - beautiful and very comfortable in terms of geographical location.People lived in this area already 15-20 thousand. Years ago.The legendary Prince Kyi, the founder of the village, probably lived in the Chernyakhov culture."Veles book" claims that he was a native of the southern Baltic and lived around the middle of the second century.But the foundation of the castle dates back to the source of the Scythian period that overlaps with the message Herodotus cobble together.Perhaps Polyansky prince laid the city, and only strengthened it and made reference.Academician Rybakov believes that Kiev was founded later, in the 5-6 century, when the Slavs actively populated area on the Dnieper and the Danube, advancing to the Balkan Peninsula.
emergence of cities in ancient Russia after Kiev was natural, as the fortified walls for people to feel safe.But at the dawn of the state capital city fields enter the Khazar Khanate.In addition, McDermott met with the Byzantine emperor, presumably with Anastasia.About who rules hail after the death of its founder, it is unknown.History mentions only the names of the last two rulers before the arrival of the Vikings.Prophetic Oleg without bloodshed captured Kiev, made it his capital, pushed nomads, crushed the Khazar Khanate and went on the offensive against Constantinople.
Golden Age of Kiev
Movies Oleg and his successor Igor and Svyatoslav the Brave did not contribute to the development of the city.Its boundaries are not expanded since the time of Kiya, but it has stood the palace were built pagan and Christian temples.For the arrangement of the settlement already took Duke Vladimir, and after the baptism of Rus it grow stone shrines, burial mounds old gods razed to the ground.Under Yaroslav built St. Sophia Cathedral and the Golden Gate, and the territory of Kiev, and its population increase by several times.The rapidly developing crafts, publishing, education.Cities in ancient Russia is growing, but hail Kyi is still in charge.Today, in the central part of the Ukrainian capital can see the buildings erected in the heyday of the state.
Landmarks Ukrainian capital
ancient city in ancient Russia were very beautiful.And of course, the capital is no exception.Today, architectural monuments of the time allowed to submit the magnificence of Kiev.The most prominent landmark - Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, founded by a monk Anthony in 1051.The complex consists of stone temples decorated with paintings, cells, underground caves, fortified tower.Golden Gate built under Yaroslav the Wise - a unique reminder of defensive architecture.Today is a museum inside and around buildings divided square, where a monument to Prince.It is worth visiting the famous St. Sophia Cathedral (1037), St. Michael's Cathedral Vydubychi Monastery (XI - XII centuries.), Cyril, Trinity Gate Church, Church of the Savior on Berestove (all in the XII.).
Major Cities of Ancient Russia - is not only Stolny Kiev.Beautiful is the Novgorod, which has been preserved until today, because he was not moved by the Mongols.Subsequently, in order to emphasize the important role in the history of the village, the official name of the authorities have added the prefix "Great."
amazing degree, separated by the river Volkhov, was founded in the year 859.But this is the date when the settlement was first mentioned in written sources.Chronicle mentions that in 859, died Novgorod governor Gostomysl and therefore Novgorod arose early, long before calling Rurik on the principality.Archaeological excavations have shown that in these lands, people settled in the fifth century.In the eastern chronicles of the tenth century al-mentioned Slaviya (Glory, Sala), one of the cultural centers of the Rus.By this is meant the city Novgorod or its predecessor - the old town Ilmen Slavs.He was also identified with the Scandinavian Holmgard, capital Gardariki.
Features capital of the Novgorod Republic
Like all major cities of ancient Russia, Novgorod was divided into parts.There were quarters of a craft-guild-purpose residential areas without streets, fortifications.Detinets is formed already in 1044.Apart from him, until today, remained the shaft and White (Alekseevskaya) tower.In 1045-1050 years in the City of St. Sophia Cathedral is built, a little later - Nicholas Dvorischenskogo, St George and the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin.
When Veche Republic is formed, the city blooms architecture (there Novgorod school of architecture).Princes have lost the right to build churches, but it is actively engaged citizens, merchants and patrons.The homes of people, as a rule, were made of wood, and of stone erected only places of worship.It is noteworthy that even at that time in Novgorod operated wooden aqueduct, and the streets were paved with stone blocks.
studying the major cities of ancient Russia, not to mention Chernigov.In the vicinity of the modern settlement of people lived in the 4 millennium BC.But Castle was first mentioned in written sources in the year 907.After the Battle of hardwood in 1024 Mstislav brother Yaroslav the Wise, making Chernigov their capital.Since then, he is actively developing, growing and being built.Here erected Eletskii Ilyinsky and monasteries, which are long spiritual centers of the principality, whose territory stretches to Murom, Kolomna and Tmutarakan.
invasion of the Tatars stopped the peaceful development of the city, which was burned Chingizid Mongke troops in October 1239.With princely times to the present day came several architectural masterpieces, with whom and begin to explore the city by tourists.It is the Savior Cathedral (XI cent.), St. Elias Church, and Sts Cathedral of the Assumption, Yelets Uspensky Monastery (all - XII c.), St. Friday Church.Paraskeva (XIII c.).Noteworthy Anthony Cave (XI-XIX c.) And Black Grave mounds, promenades and Unnamed.
was another castle, which played a crucial role.Cities in Ancient Rus were many, but not all of them was the center of the principality.Ryazan, completely destroyed by Batu Khan, has not revived.In 1778, Pereyaslavl-Ryazan, which is distant from the old princely settlements in the 50 km, was given a new name - Ryazan, but use it with the prefix "New".Ruins of ancient castle today of great interest to historians and archaeologists.Only the remains of fortifications occupy more than sixty hectares.The archaeological reserve also includes the ruins of the patrol outposts, New Fortress Olga, who sheltered near the All-Russian rodnovercheskoe Sanctuary.
In the upper reaches of the Dnieper is an ancient and very beautiful city.The place name goes back to Smolensk Smolnya name of the river or to the name of the tribe of Smolyan.It is also likely that the castle named in honor of the fact that he was lying on the route from the Vikings to the Greeks and was a place where travelers tarred boat.First mentioned he "Tale of Bygone Years" at 862 and is referred to as the center of a tribal alliance Krivichy.In the campaign against Constantinople Askold and Dir went around Smolensk party because it was heavily fortified.In 882, the castle was captured by Prophetic Oleg and became part of his empire.
In 1127 the city became the lot of Rostislav Mstislavovitch, who in 1146 ordered to build St Peter and Paul on Gorodyanka, Church of St. John the Theologian.Before the Mongol invasion Smolensk reaches its highest peak.It took about 115 hectares, and there is a resident population of 40 thousand. People in eight thousand homes.Horde invasion did not touch hail, which allowed him to keep many monuments.But since it has lost its value and fell under the dependence of the other principalities.
As you can see, high urban development of ancient Russia allows them to be not only the political center of the region, but also to establish foreign relations with other countries.For example, Smolensk had close relations with Riga and Novgorod on trade relations in general is legendary.What other settlements existed in Russia?
- Polotsk, located on a tributary of the Daugava River.Today he is in the territory of Belarus and loved by tourists.About princely era it reminded Sophia Cathedral (11th century, destroyed and rebuilt in the 18th century) and the oldest stone building in the country - Holy Transfiguration Church (12th century).
- Pskov (903 year).
- Rostov (862).
- Suzdal (862).
- Vladimir (990 year).The city is part of the Golden Ring of Russia, famous for the Assumption and St. Demetrius Cathedral, Golden Gate.
- Moore (862), burned down during the Mongol invasion, rebuilt in the fourteenth century.
- Yaroslavl - city on the Volga River, was founded by Yaroslav the Wise in the early tenth century.
- Terebovlya (Galicia-Volyn principality), the first mention of the city dates back to the year 1097.
- Galich (Galicia-Volyn principality), the first written mention of it dates back to the year 1140.However, in the epics of the Duke Stepanovich said that he was better than Kiev during the life of Ilya Muromets, and received baptism long before 988 years.
- Vyshgorod (946 year).The castle was the lot of Princess Olga and her favorite place.That there lived three hundred concubines, Prince Vladimir before his baptism.From Old Russian era it did not survive a single building.
- Pereyaslavl (today's Pereyaslav-Khmelnitsky).The 907 was first mentioned in written sources.Today in the city you can see remnants of fortifications 10-11 centuries.
Instead of an epilogue
Of course, we do not have listed all the cities that glorious epoch in the history of the Eastern Slavs.And especially not able to describe them fully as they deserve because of the limited size of this article.But we hope that the awakened interest in the study of the past.