No country in the world can not normally exist without a state budget.What is this document is, and what features of the budget?State budget called painting (balance estimate) of all expenditures and revenues.His role in the development of national economies has always been highly controversial.With the change in the level of taxation and government spending often regulate the amount of aggregate demand.For this reason, there are two types of fiscal policy: restrictive (restrictive) and an expansive (expansion).The first means reducing government spending and tax increases, which leads to a weakening of inflation and the normalization of the economic conjuncture.The second involves an increase in expenses and a decrease in the level of taxation, thus helping to overcome the difficult economic crises.
budget revenues are formed by such receipts as income tax, taxes on businesses and companies, social security contributions, indirect taxes, taxes on consumption, excise duties.The expenditure part of the
budget functions are different, but one of the most important is the growth of aggregate demand through government purchases of goods and services.It acts both as the main instrument of state policy.The economic essence of the budget is that the government is using it as the main instrument of social, economic policy and ensure its full operation.With the budget is carried out large-scale redistribution of income in order to achieve the greatest social justice.Almost half of the budget goes to social and economic needs of the state.
These costs are divided into two groups:
- social - includes expenses for payment of pensions, benefits, education, health-care costs;
- economic - includes the cost of housing, regional development, energy, engineering, environment protection, manufacturing, mining, transportation, natural resources, agriculture, communications.
normal state of the state budget is considered to be equality between its revenues and expenditures.During the economic crisis, the budget usually has a negative balance, thus there is a shortage of income.In times of speculative boom state budget could have a surplus.In this case, a surplus is formed, that is, the excess of income over budgetary expenditure.During the crisis, aggregate demand decreases, and during the speculative boom intensified inflation.State budget deficit may be covered by printing money, extra income, increase internal or external debt.
essence of the state budget is epitomized in its functions.Since it is considered a major element of the entire financial system of the state, he performs the following functions of the budget:
1. Junction - concentrating the funds through certain channels and redistributes them through the organs of the Treasury.
2. Control, which is manifested in the implementation of control measures for the process of formation and distribution of funds.It is the Treasury, the Central Bank, all the tax authorities.
3. Redistribution of GDP.
4. stimulate and regulate the economy.
5. Financial provision of the public sector (government agencies).
6. Conducting social policy.Additional features
- information function;
- institutionalization of public preferences;
The state budget is considered a legal act, which is the most important financial plan for the country.