The smallest and concurrently the oldest on the planet is mainland Australia.It is located in the southern hemisphere of the planet, and we can say divides the icy Antarctic and equatorial archipelago of Indonesia.Unusual and unique is also the terrain of Australia.Anyone who has visited this land, say that nowhere else in the world are such stunning landscapes.Well, look at us, what are the forms of relief and Australia differ from each other by different parts of the continent.
To start to define so, what is the geographical position of the continent.It is located in the eastern part of the southern hemisphere, it stretches along the tropical and subtropical zones.Washed by the waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, as well as many of the seas which are adjacent to it.The area of the continent is 7,659,861 square kilometers.The exact coordinates of Australia determined by its ends.To the south is Cape South East Cape, 43 degrees S.N .;in the north - Cape York, 10 ° S.N .;
General information about the geology of the continent
Relief Australia - a predominantly flat surface.It consists of plateaus that rise slightly above sea level.At the same time they are raised in the area of banks, and in the center of the continent there is a significant reduction in the soil, ie depression.Contour map of Australia also demonstrates to us that there are mountains.However, this is only one mountain range located in the east of the continent, which has in comparison with other mountain systems of the world a very small height.From a geological point of view, the smallest continent in the world can be divided into three parts: the eastern, western and central.
Mountains and hills - not the main landforms in Australia, but in the east they occupied the bulk of the territory.Local landscapes are made up of the Great Dividing Range, the highest point of which is Mount Kosciuszko height of 2228 meters.Ridge itself is divided into four longitudinal zones.First - coastal mountain ranges that stretch along the shores of the Pacific Ocean.Second - intermountain lowlands, reaching elevations below sea level.These are followed by areas with major mountain ranges.And in fourth place Downs - hilly foothills to the west of the surface of the ridge.
Orography Dividing Range
Any contour map of Australia shows clearly that the main ridge of the continent is divided into two parts: the mountains of New South Wales and Queensland Mountain.In the first part of the options are narrowed waist, but the height of the shafts is very significant.Local depression gradually become the coastal plain accumulative type.The closer to the south, the hills less common.The second part of the ridge, Queensland, occupies a larger area, but the area is not too big elevation changes.This zone is called a typical midlands.Also here all four bands are very pronounced.
Geology Rarity: West and its historical heritage
West Australian relief is presented in the form of high plains, approximately 300-500 meters.This height is reduced to the level of the oceans only in the southwestern part, where is the Nullarbor Plain.Closer to the center of the continent are small ridges.They were formed as a result of raised platforms in recent times.Heritage Region is considered to be the area with the oldest rock on the planet.He does not fail here with the period of Neogene age.It was at that time established a dry windy climate that prevails on the mainland so far.Paradoxically, the wind was the cause of destruction of many species on Earth for thousands of years.And then he seemed to strengthen the soil, preserving its originality and uniqueness.
As we mentioned above, the major landforms in Australia - it is plain, and it is in the central part they are represented most vividly.The altitude here is on average 150 meters closer to the geographic center of the lower.Central Valley stretch from north to south from the Gulf of Carpentaria to the Great Australian Bight.Within these limits are the main low-lying plateau continent.First of Carpentaria plain, followed by a low-lying area of the Great Artesian Basin.Plain Murray-Darling is characterized by differences of heights.Within it is the most extensive and deepest river in Australia - Murray.In the central part of the continent it is also Lake Eyre.Its depth is the lowest point in Australia - fifteen meters below sea level.
Desert Australia - "horse" of local landscapes
It is because of the fact that Australia is mainly flat terrain and low-lying, then formed many desert areas that are covered with sands of different breeds.Deserts occupy the central and western parts of the continent and smoothly pass into savanna or in mountains.Mostly all the sand, which is dotted with the territory of Australia, have a non-standard brown or coral color.This effect is created for two reasons.Firstly, there are really soil red pigment which is slightly "tints" sand and makes it unique.Secondly, in the shade of the Australian desert affects the position of the sun.It was on this continent, it shines at such an angle that the hours of sunrise and sunset makes the already red sand even more dark and intense.Because viewing the local sand dunes and dunes it is recommended in the evening (or morning) to see them in all of the unique beauty, under the light of the oblique rays of the setting sun.
Amazingly, in the depths of the red sand and terrible monsoon winds occur and very humid areas filled with thick green vegetation.This is the northern part of the region, which is located in the tropical zone.Here is concentrated the maximum rainfall, very high levels of humidity and slight fluctuations in temperature.In the north of Australia are growing different palm trees, eucalyptus trees, ferns and acacia, unique animals live.Among them, flying squirrels and foxes, koalas, possums, bats and huge lizards unique.
Description Australia would be incomplete if we did not tell her about the plum - resorts.These include two main areas - the Gold Coast and the Great Barrier Reef.The first is located near Brisbane, in the bay of the Pacific Ocean.This is one of the most famous places in the world for surfing.Gold Coast - a unique place where the combined advances of modern cities and the pristine local environment.Barrier Reef - a real treasure, it stretches along the north-east of the continent.It consists of nearly a thousand islands, surrounded by bright turquoise waters.Here diving is popular, as the marine life that live in the coral, incredibly beautiful and interesting.