Immediately after the appearance of armor combat vehicles artillery weapons designers began to create tools that can effectively destroy it.
usual shell for this purpose are not well suited, its kinetic energy is not always enough to overcome the barrier of thick high-strength steel with manganese additives.The sharp tip crinkled, housing was destroyed, but the effect is minimal at best - deep dent.
Russian engineer and inventor Makarov developed the design of armor-piercing projectile with a blunt front end.This solution provides a high level of pressure on the surface of the metal at the initial moment of contact with the place getting exposed to excessive heat.Melts and the tip itself, and the area of armor affected by stroke.In the resulting fistula penetrated the remainder of the shell, producing destruction.
sergeant Nazarov did not possess the theoretical knowledge of metallurgy and physics, but intuitively come to a very interesting structure, which became the prototype of the effectiv
In 1912 Nazarov proposed to introduce into conventional ammunition durable rod for its hardness is not inferior armor.Officials of the Ministry of War sergeant shrugged off the annoying, considering it is clear that no entries retiree illiterate can not invent.Subsequent events demonstrated the harmfulness of such arrogance.
Krupa Company received a patent for piercing projectiles already in 1913, before the war.However, the level of the beginning of XX century armor eliminates the need for special anti-armor vehicles.They demanded later, during the Second World War.
operating principle of piercing projectiles based on a simple formula known from school physics course: the kinetic energy of a moving body is proportional to its mass and the square of the speed.Therefore, to ensure the greatest destructive ability is more important to disperse striking an object heavier than him.
This simple theoretical proposition finds its practical confirmation.76 mm piercing projectiles half the weight of conventional armor-piercing (3.02 and 6.5 kg, respectively).But to ensure the striking power is not enough just to reduce weight.Armor, as the song goes, is strong, and to break through it, need more tricks.
If the steel ingot with a uniform internal structure strikes the solid barrier, it will collapse.This process is slow as the initial collapse looks like the tip, increasing the contact area, strong heating and spreading the molten metal around the place of impact.
armor-piercing projectile acts differently.Its steel body is destroyed on impact, taking on the part of the thermal energy and protecting the inner part of the heavy-duty thermal destruction.Cermet core, shaped somewhat elongated spools for thread and a diameter three times smaller caliber, continues to move, punching a hole in the armor of a small diameter.Thus, a large amount of heat, which creates a thermal imbalance, producing a mechanical pressure combined with a devastating effect.
holes, which forms a piercing projectiles, has a funnel shape, extending in the direction of its movement.Submunitions, explosives and fuse it is not required, flying into the war machine and the core pieces of armor represent a mortal threat to the crew, and the released heat can cause a detonation of fuel and ammunition.
Despite the variety of anti-tank weapons, piercing projectiles, invented more than a century ago, still have their place in the arsenal of modern armies.