The world is full of beautiful buildings, natural phenomena, and other unique objects that delight people.And the task of every generation - to preserve this wealth and give it to the descendants.The most valuable attractions fall into a special list.
About World Heritage sites
terrible to think that the children will not see, such as the Acropolis or the Solovetsky Islands.Meanwhile, it can happen, if not in the near future, in a few generations.That is why one of the priorities of mankind - preserve and enhance cultural and natural resources of the planet.
this purpose and created a special list, which includes World Heritage sites, which are located on the territory of different countries and regions.There are many, they are diverse, and each is unique.
The idea of the list of the most valuable objects in the world, was implemented in 1978, after six years earlier was adopted the UN Convention, which declared a common responsibility for the preservation of the most sign
At the end of 2014, the list contains 1,007 names.The top ten on the number of World Heritage sites are Italy, China, Spain, France, Germany, Mexico, India, Great Britain, Russia and the United States.Total on their territory is 359 names included in the list.
There are a number of criteria, according to which the expansion of the list and going.They include uniqueness or exclusivity of a place or building from different perspectives: its occupants, construction, evidence of an important stage of development of civilization and so on. D. So sometimes the list can be found quite unexpected for someone objects.
categories and examples
All variety of World Heritage divided into three groups: cultural, natural, cultural and natural.The first category is the largest, it includes 779 names, for example, the building of the Opera House in Sydney.The second group includes 197 objects, including the Bialowieza Forest and the Grand Canyon.The latter category is the smallest - only 31 monument, but they combine both the natural beauty and human intervention: Machu Picchu, the monasteries of Meteora, and so on. D.
people somehow got used primarily to admire the buildings and the works of their own effortsforgetting about natural beauty.And in vain, because in fact it is also World Cultural Heritage.
in Russia on the territory of the Russian Federation is 26 monuments included in the UNESCO list.Of these, 15 are classified as cultural, and the remaining 11 - Natural.They are located across the country and include the really unique UNESCO World Heritage sites in Russia.
first RF has joined the list of countries in which there are monuments to human and natural genius, in 1990, when added to the list of the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square, as well as Kizhi and the historic center of St. Petersburg.In the future, Russia World Heritage Site is regularly updated and still continues to expand.The list of reserves fall, monasteries, geological monuments and many other objects.So, in 2014, a World Heritage Site Russia entered the historical-archaeological complex "Bulgar", which is located in Tatarstan.
World Heritage Russia mostly known to many citizens.But someone will find something and unfamiliar items that might wish to visit, so it's best to bring a complete list:
- historic center and monuments of St. Petersburg;
- Kremlin and Red Square in Moscow;
- Kizhi churchyard;
- Novgorod and its environs;
- White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal;
- Church of the Ascension;
- Trinity-Sergius Lavra;
- Komi Forests;
- Lake Baikal;
- Kamchatka volcanoes;
- Nature Reserve Sikhote-Alin;
- golden Altai Mountains;
- Pool Lake Uvs Nuur;
- Western Caucasus;
- Kazan Kremlin;
- Ferapontov Monastery;
- Curonian Spit;
- old city of Derbent;
- Wrangel Island;
- Novodevichy Convent;
- the historic center of the city of Yaroslavl;
- Struve Arc;
- Putorana plateau;
- Lena Pillars;
- complex "Bulgar".
Another issue is related to political events in 2014 - on the Crimean peninsula is the ancient town of Hersonissos, which is also included in the world cultural heritage.Russia actually have something to strive for, because in the country is located much more unique objects, and each of them may eventually enter into the list of UNESCO.In the meantime, it's worth more to learn about the monuments that are already on the list.It is no wonder that they turned back?
Russia - a vast country, the largest in the world by area.9 time zones, 4 climate and a lot of different areas.Not surprisingly, the World Natural Heritage of Russia quite numerous and diverse - 11 objects.There are vast forests, clean and deep lakes, natural phenomena of great beauty.
- Virgin Komi Forests.Considered the largest intact forests in Europe.During World Heritage Russia it incorporated in 1995.On their territory they grow, and home to many rare species of flora and fauna.
- Lake Baikal.It is the deepest in the world.It included in the list in 1996.Many of the species living in the lake are endemic.
- Volcanoes of Kamchatka peninsula.They are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire.Included in the World Heritage Russia in 1996.
- Golden Mountains of Altai.In the list since 1998.Include habitats of rare species of flora and fauna.
- Caucasian Reserve.It is located in three regions of Russia: Krasnodar Territory, the Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia and Adygea.In the list since 1999.
- Central Sikhote-Alin.Nature Reserve, located in the Primorsky Territory.On its territory is home to many rare species of animals.He entered in the UNESCO list in 2001.
- Curonian Spit.This unique object is a sand body, stretching through the Baltic Sea is almost 100 kilometers.On the territory of the braids are a large number of interesting places such as the famous "dancing forest", as through it is the way of seasonal migration of many birds.Included in the list in 2000.
- Pool Uvs Nuur.Located on the border of Russia and Mongolia.The basin has been listed in 2003 on the criteria of international scientific importance and the conservation of biological and landscape diversity.
- Wrangel Island.It shares almost equal halves between the Western and Eastern hemispheres.Most of its territory is covered by mountains.Here grow rare plants, including that caused the application object in the UNESCO list in 2004 at number 1023.
- Putorana Reserve.It was included in the World Heritage list in 2010.There are ways of migration of large populations of reindeer, as well as a unique combination of ecosystems.
- Lena Pillars.At the moment, the last World Natural Heritage in Russia.It was included in the list in 2012.In addition to the aesthetic importance of this object valuable unique geological processes occurring here.
Man-made objects of the World cultural heritage of Russia, of course, includes not only natural monuments, and the results of human labor.
- historic center of St. Petersburg.Red Square and the Kremlin in Moscow.Heart both capitals included in the list at the same time - in 1990 - and on four criteria.
- Kizhi.This unique ensemble of wooden buildings was included in the UNESCO list in 1990, too.It is a real wonder of the world, not only demonstrates the genius of mankind, but surprisingly in harmony with nature.
- In 1992, UNESCO adopted in its list of 3 more attractions monuments of Novgorod, Vladimir and Suzdal, and the Solovetsky monastery.
- Trinity-Sergius Lavra and the Church of the Ascension in Kolomna, made the list in 1993 and 1994., Known for its beauty all - many residents of Moscow and the Moscow region regularly come there.
- Ferapontov Monastery in Vologda region joined the list in 2000 as the Kazan Kremlin.
- Monuments of Derbent in Dagestan - 2003.
- Novodevichy Convent in Moscow - 2004.
- historical center of Yaroslavl - 2005.
- Struve Geodetic Arc (2 points), which helped establish the shape, size and other parameters of the planet - in 2005.
- Architectural-Historical Complex Bulgar - 2014.
As you can see, the objects of the World cultural heritage of Russia mostly concentrated in the European part of its economic collapse that features development of the territory.
World Heritage List Russia in the coming years could increase substantially.The Russian government regularly provides the UN all new applicants, in its own unique and beautiful.Now there are 24 sites that can be included in the main list of UNESCO.
threat of extinction
Unfortunately, not always possible to preserve World Heritage.Russia, fortunately, it is not in danger, all of its sites included in the list are relatively safe.UNESCO regularly edits and publishes a special list, which includes unique objects that are in danger.Today it consists of 38 points.Natural and cultural sites fall into this "alarming" list for various reasons: poaching, deforestation, construction and reconstruction projects, breaking the historical appearance, climate change and so on.. In addition, the worst enemy of a World Heritage Site - this time, which is impossiblewin.Yet from time to time, the monuments are displayed in this list, mostly because of the improvement of the situation.But there are sad examples when the situation has deteriorated to such an extent that the objects simply ceased to enter into the World Heritage Site.Russia has nothing to fear, even though the environmental situation in some parts of the country can affect many natural monuments.And then, perhaps, to the Russian Federation "alarming" list will be relevant.
listing - is not only and not so much prestige, but first and foremost attention to safety and of those or other objects by the large number of organizations.UNESCO also encourages the development of eco-tourism and increases the awareness of people about the unique monuments.In addition, there is a special fund, which funds support facilities.