Martin Heidegger (years of life - 1889-1976) is one of the founders of the philosophy of the direction of a German existentialism.He was born in 1889, 26 September, in messkirch.His father, Friedrich Heidegger, was a fine craftsman.
Heidegger is going to become a priest
From 1903 to 1906, Martin Heidegger attends school in Konstanz.He lives in the "House of Conrad" (Catholic boarding school) and getting ready to become a priest.Over the next three years, he is continuing his studies, Martin Heidegger.His biography at this time is marked by the fact that he attends school and archiepiscopal seminary in Breisgau (Freiburg).September 30, 1909 the future philosopher became a novice in Feldkirch located under the Jesuit monastery Tizis.However, 13 October was forced to leave home because of the outbreak of pain in the heart of Martin Heidegger.
Brief biography of his continuing in that it for the period 1909 to 1911 studying at the University of Freiburg, in the theological faculty.He also engaged in
spiritual crisis, a new field of study with a thesis
From 1911 to 1913 he was going through a spiritual crisis and decides to leave the theological faculty, continued his studies at the University of Freiburg.Here, Martin Heidegger studied philosophy and the natural sciences and the humanities.He shtudiruet work Husserl "Logical Investigations".In 1913, Martin Heidegger defended his thesis, and after 2 years became a lecturer at the University of Freiburg.
In 1917, philosopher marries.Thinker marries studying economics in Freiburg Elfriede Petri.Heidegger's wife is the daughter of a high-ranking Prussian officer.Her religion - Lutheran.The woman immediately believed in the high destiny and genius of her husband.She becomes his support, secretary, friend.Under the influence of the couple with time growing alienation from Heidegger's Catholicism.In 1919, the family comes first son, Georg, and a year later - Herman.
Work assistant professor, lectures on ontology
From 1918 to 1923 the philosopher Husserl and is an assistant lecturer at the University of Freiburg.In 1919 he broke with the Catholic system, and a year later started a friendship that philosopher Karl Jaspers.From 1923 to 1928, Heidegger holds lectures on ontology.Ontology of Martin Heidegger contributes to its popularity.He was invited to the University of Marburg extraordinary professor.
Jobs in Marburg
Income Heidegger improved.However, the town itself, scanty library, the local air - all this annoying Martin, who'd rather settled in Heidelberg.It is here that attracts him now, and his friendship with Karl Jaspers.Saves Heidegger spirited philosophical search, as well as a cabin in Todtnauberg (pictured below), located not far from their homes - wood work, mountain air, and most importantly - creating a book called "Being and Time", which became a classic of 20th century.Very popular among students lectures Heidegger.However, there is no rapport with colleagues, except for R. Bultmann, the famous Protestant theologian.
Heidegger - Husserl's successor at the University of Freiburg
book "Being and Time" is released in 1927, and the next it becomes the author of Husserl's successor at the department of philosophy at the University of Freiburg native.In 1929-30.he reads a number of important reports.In 1931 Heidegger appear sympathy for the National Socialist movement.Rector of the University of Freiburg (pictured below), he becomes in 1933.By this time, the organization is "science camp", as well as promotional appearances in Tübingen, Heidelberg and Leipzig.
Heidegger turns in 1933 among the relatively few well-known personalities who cooperate with the Nazis.Among his ideological aspirations, he finds something consonant with their mentalities.Heidegger, immersed in his studies and thoughts, do not have the time and desire to grasp the meaning of particular works of fascist "theorists" and "Mein Kampf," Hitler.The new movement promises greatness and renewal of Germany.Student unions contribute to this.Heidegger, whose students have always loved, and know the mood takes them into account.The wave of national animation fascinates him.Gradually Heidegger caught in a net of various Nazi organizations based in the University of Freiburg.
In April 1934, the philosopher voluntarily leaves the post of rector.He is developing a plan for the establishment of the Academy of professors in Berlin.Martin decides to go into the shadows, because depending on the policy of National Socialism had already inconvenienced.This saves a philosopher.
war and postwar years
In subsequent years, he makes a number of important reports.In 1944 Heidegger urge to dig trenches in the national militia.In 1945 he went to Meskirh to hide and make up your manuscript and then reports to the then Commission on cleaning.Heidegger also corresponds with Sartre, Jean Bofre friends.From 1946 to 1949 continues the ban on teaching.In 1949 he makes the club in Bremen 4 of the report, which was repeated in 1950 at the Academy of Fine Arts (Bavaria).Heidegger takes part in various seminars, visits to Greece in 1962.He died May 26, 1978.
Two periods in the works of Heidegger
Two periods of isolated works of this thinker.The first lasted from 1927 to mid-1930.In addition to "Being and Time", in these years, Martin Heidegger wrote the following works (in 1929): - "Kant and the problem of metaphysics," "On the essence of the base," "What Is Metaphysics?".Since 1935 begins the second period of his work.It lasts until the end of the life of the thinker.The most significant works of this period are written in 1946 work "Gelderin and the essence of poetry," in 1953 - "Introduction to Metaphysics", in 1961 - "Nietzsche", in 1959 - "Towards a language."
Features of the first and second period
Philosopher in the first period of trying to create a system, which is a theory of being, regarded as the basis of human existence.In the second Heidegger interprets a variety of philosophical ideas.He refers to the works of ancient authors such as Anaximander, Plato, Aristotle, and the works of the representatives of modern and contemporary, such as Rainer Maria Rilke, Nietzsche, F. Hölderlin.The problem of language in this period becomes the main theme of this thinker of his reasoning.
tasks set before him, Heidegger
Martin Heidegger, whose philosophy we are interested in, saw his task as a thinker to justify a new teaching about the meaning and the essence of being.He sought to achieve this goal, find ways that improve the adequacy of transmission of thought through language.Efforts were directed to the philosopher is to convey subtle shades of meaning, making maximum use of philosophical terms.
very tricky language written by Heidegger's major work, published in 1927 ("Being and Time").For example, Berdyaev considered "intolerable" language of work, and many of word (the word "mozhestvovanie" and others) - meaningless or, at least, is very unfortunate.Heidegger's language, however, as Hegel's, characterized by a special expressiveness.Undoubtedly, these authors have their own literary style.
impasse in which Europe has found
Martin Heidegger seeks in his writings reveal the installation of thinking people in Europe who can be called fundamental, Species present undesirable state of European civilization.According to the philosopher, the most important of which offer people to focus on overcoming the cultural thought of 300 years.Europe has got to a standstill exactly it.Because of this impasse must be sought out, listening to the whisper of life, he believed Martin Heidegger.His philosophy in this matter is not fundamentally new.Many European thinkers worried about being in the right direction humanity is moving and if he should change his way.However, thinking about it, Heidegger goes further.He hypothesizes that we may be "late" historic achievements suitable to an end, in which all will be completed "tedious procedure of uniform."In his philosophy of this thinker puts forward the task of saving the world.The purpose of his modest.It is to understand the world in which we live.
analysis of the category of being
In philosophy, it focuses on the analysis of the categories of being.This category he fills a kind of content.Martin Heidegger, whose biography was presented above, believes that the existence indicates from the outset the philosophical Western thought and still the same thing, and the presence of which sounds now.According to the generally accepted view, the present features of his time in opposition to the past and the future.Time is defined as the presence of being.In Heidegger's existence - the existence in time of different things, or existential.
According to this philosopher, human existence - the highlight of understanding things.The human being, he represents a special term "dasien", thereby breaking with the earlier tradition of philosophy, according to which the term refers to "things," "actual existence".According to scholars of Heidegger, his "dasien" means, rather, the existence of consciousness.Only a man knows that he is mortal, and only he knew the temporality of its own existence.He is able, thanks to this, to recognize its existence.
Getting into the world and being in it, a person experiences a state of concern.This concern appears as unity of 3 points, "running ahead", "being in the world" and "being at vnutrimirovom that exists."Heidegger believed that to be an existential being is to be especially open to the knowledge of all things.
Philosopher considering as "running ahead", "care", wants to emphasize the difference between being a person from the rest of the material being in the world.Being human as constantly "slipping forward".It contains so new features, fixes as a "project."That is human existence projects itself.Awareness of the movements of his time in the project being implemented.Therefore, we can consider such a being as existing in history.
Another interpretation of "care" ("Being in the vnutrimirovom that exists") is a special way of relating to things.Man sees them as his companions.Structure of care integrates the present, future and past.The past thus appears in Heidegger as the abandonment of the future - as a "project," working on us, and now - doomed to being enslaved by things.Genesis may, depending on the priority of an item to be non-genuine or authentic.
We are dealing with a non-genuine being and existence, corresponding to it, when the preponderance of things in being a component of this obscures its finiteness of man, that is, when being entirely absorbed by social and objective environment.According to Heidegger, inauthentic existence can not be eliminated conversion environment.It conditions the person is in a "state of alienation."Heidegger calls inauthentic way of being characterized by the fact that a person is fully immersed in the world of things, dictating his behavior, the existence in the impersonal Nothing.It determines the everyday life of the person.Being advanced to nothing, thanks to the discoveries of the last attached to the fleeting existence.In other words, he can grasp things.As a condition for the possibility of its expansion, we Nothing refers to existence.Our curiosity to it creates metaphysics.It provides an outlet beyond the existence of the knowing subject.
Metaphysics in the interpretation of Heidegger
should be noted that Heidegger, thinking about metaphysics, in its own way it interprets.Quite different from the traditional understanding of the interpretation proposed by Martin Heidegger.What is metaphysics, according to tradition?It has traditionally been viewed as a synonym for the philosophy of the whole or a part of it, ignoring the dialectic.The philosophy of the New Age, we are interested in the opinion of the thinker it is the metaphysics of subjectivity.This metaphysics, moreover, is a complete nihilism.What is its fate?Heidegger believed that the old metaphysics, which became synonymous with nihilism in our epoch ends his story.According to him, this proves the transformation of anthropology philosophical knowledge.Becoming anthropology, philosophy dies itself from metaphysics.Heidegger believed that evidence of this is the proclamation of the famous slogan of Nietzsche's "God is dead."This slogan means, in fact, the rejection of religion, which is a proof of the destruction of the foundations on which rested primarily important ideals and based on human ideas to life.
Martin Heidegger notes that the disappearance of the authority of the church and God means that the latter takes place the authority of conscience and reason.Historical progress is replaced by flight into the realm of sense of this world.The goal of eternal bliss which is beyond, is transformed into the earthly happiness to many people.The spread of civilization and build a culture gives way to the care of a religious cult, as noted by Martin Heidegger.Technique and mind come to the fore.That was the first feature of the God of the Bible - creativity - now characterizes human activity.Creativity becomes gesheft people and business.After that comes the stage of decline of culture, its decomposition.Nihilism is a sign of modern times.Nihilism, according to Heidegger, - the truth that the former goal of all things shaken.This truth comes to dominate.However, with the change of attitude towards the basic values of nihilism becomes clean and free problems of establishing new ones.Nihilistic attitude to the values and the authorities do not care, though, stop the development of human culture and thought.
random whether the sequence of epochs?
Note relating to the history of philosophy of Martin Heidegger, which, according to him, is not random sequence being accommodates ages.It is inevitable.The Thinker believed that the arrival of the future people can not accelerate.However, they can see it, we just need to learn to listen to the existence and ask questions.And then quietly coming new world.It will, according to Heidegger, guided by the "instinct" that is, to subordinate the task of planning all the possible aspirations.So nedochelovechestvo become a superman.
two types of thinking
necessary to go through a long path errors, misconceptions and knowledge to this transformation occurred.Understanding the nihilism that has hit European consciousness, can contribute to overcoming this difficult and long journey.Only a new philosophy, not connected with the "scientific philosophy" of the past, can successfully follow the study of the world by means of listening to him.Heidegger sees in the development of philosophy of scientific alarming symptom, saying that it fades to comprehend thinking and growing calculated.These two types of thinking stand in the work entitled "Detachment", published in 1959.Their analysis - the basis of the theory of knowledge of phenomena in the sphere of public life.According to Heidegger, calculated or calculable thinking explores and plans, calculates the possibility of, without analyzing the possible consequences of their implementation.This type of empirical thinking.He was not able to focus on the king in all sense.Comprehended in their mind off the extremes of reality.However, it is, in the presence of exercises and special training can avoid this extreme and reach the truth of being.According to Heidegger, this is possible thanks to phenomenology, which advocates "knowledge interpretation" and hermeneutics.
What is true, according to Heidegger
Many of the issues highlighted in his works, Martin Heidegger.The ideas of his concern, in particular, how to set the record straight.This thinker, thinking about it, as well as the apprehension of being in the work entitled "The essence of truth" comes from the fact that the ordinary human mind acts through thinking means to achieve it.But what is the truth?