The Crimean peninsula.

Well-known fact is that the Crimean peninsula has a unique climate.Crimea, the territory which occupies 26.9 thousand. Km2, is not only the well-known Black Sea health resort, but also the health resort of Azov.The waters of these two continental seas wash its shores.In addition, the Crimea has significant potential for the development of irrigated agriculture: horticulture and viticulture.

Peninsula has multilevel relief.In the north and center of the relief steppe prevails, it takes ¾ territory of Crimea, in the south it is limited to three ridges of shallow sedimentary Crimean Mountains, stretching 160 km long strip.South Coast pleases with spa features.Accordingly, in climatic terms of area of ​​the Crimean peninsula includes three recreational areas:

- most in demand - subtropical (the southern coast of Crimea);

- steppe Crimea;

- mountain Crimea.

Millions of tourists in the summer guests are his welcoming cities of Simferopol, Sevastopol, Kerch, Feodosia.This - the largest city of the pen

insula, a brief description of some of them, we present below.According to statistics, currently visiting the peninsula for the season 5-6 million. Tourists.A lot or a little?For comparison, resorts of Turkey in 2011 was visited by 31.456 million. Tourists.All business - in infrastructure and promotion.As you can see, the Crimea has something to strive for ...

population of Crimea

population of the Crimean peninsula, according to Krymstata on 01.01.2014, at more than 2.342 million. People, and tends to increase.The reason - the migration attractiveness of the Crimea.Urban residents have with the share of 62.7% on the peninsula, and rural, respectively - 37.3%.Nationally, according to the 2001 census, the population of Crimea is represented by predominantly Russian (58.3%), Ukrainians (24.3%), Crimean Tatars (12.1%), Belarusians (1.5%).Other nationalities in the population of the peninsula occupied by a much smaller proportion - less than 1%.

way, a census of the Crimea in 2001 revealed an interesting fact: in its territory is home Izhora (numerically small Finnish-Ugric people) more than in their homeland.

Cities Crimea

few cities of the Crimean peninsula.Their current 18. Imagine a brief description of some of them.

administrative, cultural and industrial center of Crimea is the 360,000th city of Simferopol.In Greek, the name sounds like "city of good."This is a major transport hub.Through it roads lead in all settlements of the peninsula.

significant industrial Simferopol: about 70 large enterprises, including plants "Photon", "pneumatics", "Santechprom", "Crimeaprodmash", "Fiolent" and others.Accordingly, the city's population sufficiently qualified.The city is the main universities of the peninsula, so called research center in the Crimea.Recall also that Simferopol is the homeland of Academician Igor Kurchatov, actor Roman S. Filippov, singer Yuri Iosifovich Bogatikova.

Sevastopol city built by order of Empress Catherine II as a fortress.It has a strategic importance in the Black Sea region as the ice-free port and naval base.Since 2014, according to the Russian Constitution, Sevastopol has a federal importance, being the main base of the Black Sea Fleet.

In accordance with the Constitution of Ukraine, Sevastopol was granted special status.The industrial potential of the "city of Russian sailors," determined by the local fishing port, fish cannery, and combine, Inkerman winery, shipbuilding and shipyards.City Sevastopol, moreover, is a major resort center of the southern coast of the Black Sea, there are about 200 health centers and 49 kilometers of beaches.

One of the oldest cities in the world is the Kerch on its place in the VII century BC.e.Greeks founded the city Panticapaeum.Kerch mining industry is represented, Are metal, shipbuilding, construction, fishing enterprises.Crimean resort towns with a population exceeding 100 thousand are Evpatoria and Yalta, more than 83 thousand inhabitants in Feodosia.Map of cities of the Crimean peninsula shows that most of them are on the coast.Exceptions are Simferopol, Belogorsk and Junko.

It should be noted that the existing urban structure balanced Crimea historically.Further urbanization of the peninsula prevents its limited water resources.

recent past.All-Union health resort

Crimea, the Black Sea ... these words are familiar to every Soviet man.How many people rested on the peninsula?Accurate statistics difficult to find.Officially stated figure of 10 million. However, it is made based on the data of spa facilities.

At the same time a very significant flows of tourists traveled to the Crimea and to organize their own holidays as yourself.However, they do not end up in the official statistics.This is the so-called "savages."One of the authors of the "Literary Gazette" in the 60s released in their address joke.He said that this method of relaxation has become so popular in the Soviet Union, that the media the word "savage" started without the quotes.

in their suitcases lay a map of the Crimean peninsula, and the route and resting place they chose for yourself ... How to find them?To account for the number of citizens who own campers, used informal "bread" technology.The calculation is simple: almost all the citizens consume daily bread.Per person per day, on average, accounts for 200-250 grams.Increased consumption of bread in the holiday season, and allowed us to determine the number of "savages."The result was impressive statistics: in 1958 there were about 300 thousand., In 1988 - 6.2 mln. People.

Thus, the Soviet Crimea in the holiday season (May to September) offered its recreational resources for 16 million. Soviet people.And considering that the holiday season in Turkey - twice as long, then come to the conclusion: the Crimea in the 80s of the last century provided the rest flow, commensurate with a modern Turkish, however, if we take into account the "savages".

Natural Resources

Crimea have significant deposits of natural gas, oil, minerals, iron ore.Preliminary calculations so estimate the total volume of gas reserves - more than 165 bln. M3 of oil - about 47 million. M., Iron ore - more than 1.8 billion. M.

Despite efficient extraction of minerals, the Crimean peninsula, according to experts, has muchgreater potential because of the unique natural resources, promising to build on it a year-round base of medical rehabilitation international level.

Their naipolneyshee use - strategic objective for the whole economy of the Crimea.

This peninsula is original and able to surprise.At 5.8% of its territory are objects and lands belonging to the reserve fund.

Freshwater Crimea - the subject of many discussions.Although the card of the Crimean peninsula, and shows the presence of 257-seater rivers krupnovodneyshimi of which are Alma, Belbek, Kacha, Salgir, but almost all of them have limited the power of the mountains and dry up in summer.120 Crimean rivers - not longer than 10 km, it is rather a mountain streams than the river.The length of all - Salgir (204 km).

many lakes on the peninsula, over 80. However, these reservoirs of marine origin, they are lifeless because of the high salinity of the water.These lakes are not conducive to the development of agriculture, inhibiting soil.

On the one hand - a significant agricultural potential climatic region, and with another - lack of water have identified the need for intervention in this imbalance by humans.Crucial to the water supply has the North Crimean Canal supplying water to the peninsula of the Dnieper.Its volume in 2003 was 83.5% of total water supply in Crimea.

Thus, the artificial construction of three queues channel was offset water scarcity, which objectively could not afford any own river Crimea, nor any of its lakes.By the way, the share of river water supply in the region is only 9.5%.

steppe part of Crimea produces drinking water from artesian basins.Its share is also low - 6.6% of the total.Although extracted from wells clean, quality water.

Statistics show that per capita average daily volume of Crimea have to water is 4.7 times less than for a resident of the middle band.In addition, the cost of water in the Crimea traditionally higher.

Flora Crimea

If the center and north of the peninsula are arable land, in the mountains there is a riot of primeval flora.There, to the delight of professionals grows 240 species of unique endemic plants.The northern slopes of the Crimean mountains are covered with thick deciduous forest, oak groves grow below, above - oak and hornbeam.The southern slopes of the mountains are covered with pine forests.Conifers - endemic Crimean pine.

Nature of the Crimean peninsula is extremely favorable for the creation of cultivated arboretums southern coast, with hundreds and thousands of experts harmoniously planted plants.If wild vegetation consists of shrubs (shiblyak), the Seaside Park cultivated pearls are man-made this ancient land.A special place among them belongs to the oldest Nikitsky botanical garden, tour presents plants from all over the world.However, masterpiece dendrological collections of hundreds of plants have also Massandra, Livadia, Foros, Vorontsov Park.And it is - not a complete list of the Crimean dendrological plantings.

history.Ancient World History

Crimea attractive and eventful.Its territory has long attracted the conquerors.Some are original inhabitants, the Cimmerians, who lived in the XII century, ousted the Scythians.Other indigenous people, brands, and lived in the foothills of the mountains, assimilated with the conquerors.Crimea became part of the Scythian state.

In the V century BC.e.Greeks used the Crimean peninsula to base its southern coast (Tauris, as they call it) of their city-colony Chersonesos, Kafa, Panticapaeum.At this stage, it was not about the state of the peninsula, but rather on the coast of the Greek colonization.At the same time possessed the steppes Scythians.

Recall that the Crimea is also called the cradle of Russian Orthodoxy.It was here, in the land of Khersones, in the I century BC.e.He landed Apostle Andrew preaching to the brand and the Scythians.

'63 n.e.marked by the annexation of the Crimea by the Roman Empire, which took control of the city built by the Greeks.After the fall of the mighty powers peninsula underwent several attacks.In the III century BC.e.Crimea conquered natives of Scandinavia - the Goths, and in the IV century BC.e.they were replaced by later invaders - the Huns, the nomads from Asia.

from the VI century in the Crimean steppes dominated by Turkic-speaking tribes, formed the Khazar Khanate.This fact once again we recall in the article.

Crimean city on the coast of the colony came under the jurisdiction of the successor of Rome - Byzantium.Byzantines strengthened Hersonissos, grow new fortress: Alushta, Gurzuf, Eski-Kermen, Inkerman and others.With the weakening of the Byzantine Empire on the territory of the Genoese coast constitute the principality Theodoro.

Middle Ages

Christianity developed on the peninsula and in the Middle Ages.In Hersonissos was baptized in the Holy Prince Vladimir, later extended to the whole Christian faith Rus.

From the VIII century the steppe part of the peninsula took place Slavic colonization, which had a time-limited nature, as Kievan Rus priority attention was given to the western borders, while nomads were active and aggressive forays.

In the XII century the Crimean peninsula becomes Polovtsian.This era illustrate certain Polovtsian names left to our time: Ayu-Dag ("Bear Mountain"), Artek (name of the son of the Polovtsian Khan).

After the conquest of the entire peninsula, including the Principality of Theodoro, Tatar-Mongols in the XIII century it became the center of the city Solkhat (located on the territory of modern small town of Stary Krym.).The peninsula is part of the vast Mongol-Tatar state Golden Horde.

New History

At a time when the people finally became sedentary and began to create the nation, there was a radical nation peninsula - the Crimean Tatars.In 1475 the peninsula was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, and the capital of the Crimea became Kafa.The Turkish state port became an ally of the Crimean Tatars, who were from her vassal.The Ottoman Empire is built on a peninsula their military footholds.At Perekop the conquerors built a strategic fortress Or Kalou.

history of the Crimean peninsula of modern times (counting it goes from the Renaissance) is linked to Russia's war against the Crimean Khanate.In particular, in 1736 the army of Christopher Antonovich Munnich, and in 1737 - the Army Pyotr Lasse it has been considerably weakened.Giray Khan Kyrym politically trying to forge an alliance with the countries of the West, died suddenly in 1769.

second army under the command of General-in-Chief Vasily Mikhailovich Dolgorukov during the Russian-Turkish war of 06.14.1770 and 29.07.1770 were won, the two strategic victory over the Crimean Tatars: Perekopskaya on line and Cafes.Statehood indigenous inhabitants of the region has been lost.Map of the Crimean peninsula since 1783, instead of the Crimean Khanate displayed the Tauride province, belonging to Russia.

scam century.Crimean California

In the XX century, in Soviet times, this region has become a controversial subject of geopolitics.10.18.1921 year there was formed Crimean Autonomous Republic - a component of the RSFSR.

Meanwhile, the Soviet power there was a problem of development of the region.If the Black Sea coast of Crimea was enough densely populated, the same can not be said for his part of the steppe.The Crimean steppe clearly not enough human resources.The idea of ​​creating agricultural Jewish settlements for converting semi-desert steppe in cultivated land.The history of the Crimean peninsula, as we see, had an alternative perspective of development.

In 1922, the Soviet government asked the international Jewish organization "Joint" with a good deal.She took the commitment to invest on agriculture 375 thousand. Hectares of the Crimean peninsula, and for that the Russian Federation, respectively, are able to realize the old dream of the Jews seeking the promised land - to found a Jewish Autonomous Republic.

This proposal has been under a historical roots.In VIII-X century Khazar Khanate, which existed on the peninsula, professed Judaism.

The USSR Central Executive Committee of the Council of Nationalities was set up a separate committee for employment land of the Jews.The Committee has developed a 10-year plan to accommodate up to 300 thousand Jewish settlers in the steppe part of Crimea.

19.02.1929, between the CEC of the RSFSR and the "Joint" was signed on the development of the Crimean land.In the world of this project is better known under the name «Crimean California."To implement it, the international Jewish organization issued securities in the amount of 20 million. $ Purchased by US and European private equity.Total - 26 million. $ (At the current rate - about 1.82 bln. $) In investments passed through an opening in Simferopol department of "Agro-Joint".

In 1938, Stalin turned the project, but it was a question raised during World War II.Holders of shares of "Joint" wanted compensation.At the Tehran conference, they were made by US President Roosevelt to Stalin.However, during the Cold War, the dispute was resolved General Secretary Khrushchev on a "Gordian knot."02.19.1954 of the Crimean region was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR in the RSFSR.Treaty with the Soviet Union "Joint" lost force: the subject of the dispute does not belong to the Russian Federation.

Crimea as part of Ukraine in Crimea

by going to the Ukrainian SSR, require substantial resources for its development.On the eve of this region were deported about 300 thousand people, labor is clearly not enough.In the fighting of World War II destroyed much of the male population.Agriculture peninsula alone could not solve the crisis and to reach pre-war levels.Not enough roads.