Union "and" is the most common in the Russian language.And though at first glance the rules of punctuation associated with it seem very easy, in fact it is not.It is not always clear, is appropriate or not the comma before this union, because there are many pitfalls, even if it is a syntactic unit of a simple construction.So, when a comma before the "and"?Consider this question in detail.
simple sentence.Situations where a comma is not relevant
When a comma before the "and" in simple sentences?Union "and" in a simple sentence is most often used for connecting homogeneous members.And if there are only two, then they are not separated by a comma.Here's an example: "In winter and summer - one color."
In addition, the word "and" can be connected to different groups of homogeneous members.And then, in spite of the repetitions on the letter it does not stand out.For example: "In the house, a decrepit and dirty table and sofa were piles of garbage."
Still, there are times when the two are closely related, within the meaning of homogeneous members connected by "and" third - homogeneous grammatically, but the carrier has a different meaning.In such sentences the comma would be a mistake.Here is an example of such a construction, "She crossed the threshold and entered the room and lay down on the bed dressed."
simple sentence.Situations where a comma is appropriate
As noted above, the proposals simply type the word "and" is used to connect members who are homogeneous.So when a comma before the "and"?Below - the number of such situations:
- comma before the "and" is required if the union used a few times and serves to connect three or more homogeneous members.For example: "And the mountains, forest and lawn with colorful flowers reminiscent of spring."
- comma before the conjunction "and" is placed, if there is a separation of the double union "as it is", "where the" etc.For example: "She spoke quickly, enthusiasm, emotionally, and when to take breaks, there is always a long time to catch my breath."
- Before the letter "i" a comma in a simple sentence, if two homogeneous members separated complicates design.For example: "The kitten ran to the boy, meowing loudly and looked pleadingly into the eyes."
- commas separate all the homogeneous parts of the sentence, in sentences of the type: "The kid gave cubes, and designer, and a huge bear, and a delicious cake-prevkusny."One of the most common mistakes is the lack of punctuation mark to the second in a row uniform member, which is connected to the first by means of "and".But simply speaking the proposal, you can understand that before "and the designer 'asks a pause and then a comma is appropriate.
compound sentence.Put a comma
When a comma before the "and" in sentences slozhnosochinennogo type?In most complex syntactic units ordinative bond with the word "and", connecting parts, separated by a comma in the letter.For example: "There was a strong wind and a sailboat literally flew over the waves."
In this case, and the like Union shares completed two thoughts that may well exist as a separate proposal, why would not the general meaning changed.It is this moment and should be considered primarily as a question: "We need a comma or not?" If the compound sentence can be safely divided into two or more, then yes - a comma is required.Here is an example when repeating the conjunction "and" connected three parts slozhnosochinennogo syntax: "And the leaves were falling, circling, and rain dripped sad farewell cranes and sent a shout."This is a classic situation where no comma is necessary.Exceptions can not be here.
compound sentence.Cases where the comma before the conjunction "and" is not necessary
Many are not very experienced in the grammar of people think that if the proposal is complex, part of it is always disconnected some punctuation.But this is not true.The comma before the "and" in slozhnosochinennogo syntactic units are not placed under the following circumstances:
- have simple designs composed slozhnosochinennogo have a common member.As a rule, it is a factor of time or place.For example: "In the morning it was cold and the rain poured down as if from a bucket."
- Part slozhnosochinennogo designs are impersonal sentences.For example: "Chilly and uncomfortable."Or: "You have to move the furniture and have it taken out of the room."
- comma between multiple parts of the compound sentence is not required if they express the question, exclamation, or inducement to action.For example: "He came in and you cried?" Or: "Sing my crown and let everyone die of delight!" Or: "Love brings joy, and not in the life feeling more importantly it!»
- In parts of the sentence is a general introductory word or phrase.For example: "Of course, the investigation is completed and the case sent to court."
offers a subordination bond
In some cases, a comma before the "and" in complex sentences?We must start with the fact that the word "and" - co-ordinative, and link parts in subordinating relations, it can not.It is found in the syntactic structures of this type, only a few tying clauses.And a comma between them is not required if the clauses are homogeneous and have a common part of the main.For example: "My brother said he thinks change jobs and that the plant had been sitting in the liver."
If homogeneous depending not, a comma should be used.For example: "My brother said he thinks change jobs, and the mother was delighted."In this case we have a complex construction of mixed type includes subordinate and coordinative bond.
also commas relevant clauses between homogeneous parts connected repeating the conjunction "and."For example: "This unrestrained laughter swept the couple that his knees were shaking and eyes flowed real tears."
Even if you do not know the rules, that there is a very large quantity, you can just think logically.There are two patterns:
- Comma almost always have a place in the pauses (pronounced sentence aloud).
- Comma separated between a part with a different semantic content (logical thinking).
thoughtful and considerate approach necessarily give good results!And help to avoid mistakes.
Rules, which specify the cases in which a comma before the "and", and in which - no, very much.And learn all probably impossible.Even Losers able to write a sentence without mistakes if utter it out loud (or herself), and connect the logic.Then he will not have the question arises: "When a comma before the" and "?" Be careful and try to avoid mistakes.