During the reign of Nicholas I was drafted a code of laws of the Russian Empire.Moreover, the formation of both the public and social life develops in accordance with this document.In the following article, the reader can get acquainted with the nuances of the creation of this collection of the decrees, as well as learn what specific orders have been approved.
As you know, the second half of the XVIII century was marked by the collapse of the existing feudal system.In addition, in this period began to develop intensively bourgeois relations.This subsequently led to a crisis and the formation of the capitalist system.But since that time, still dominated by the old mode of production, the development of new relationships provoked intensification of the class struggle and led to the expansion of serfdom in Russia movement.Against the backdrop of lawlessness and arbitrariness of landowners peasant unrest is gaining strength.With the advent of the new century has significantly increased the number of strikes, not only within the serfs and wage-workers, but also among the servicemen.Top of the revolutionary movement in Russia was marked by armed action of the Decembrists in 1825.As we know from history, these revolts were repaid the imperial administration.However, they could influence the further political development of the state.At that time, the country's leading figures in the amendments to the law sought to strengthen the feudal serf system.But at the same time they had to take into account the interests of developing the commercial bourgeoisie.All attempts to somehow organize legal relations in Russia fails.But the need for such works was felt stronger.Since the adoption of the majority of the Catholic Acts not only contradict each other, but also do not fully reflect the interests of socio-economic development of the country.The next attempt to carry out codification work was undertaken in 1804.Then the projects have been developed in the criminal, civil and commercial law.However, these documents were not approved because the nobility saw in them a reflection of the French Civil Code.It was clear that the adoption of the basic laws of the Russian Empire was necessary.It was supposed to be a collection of decrees, divided according to thematic categories.
principles of systematization
above orders have been combined into a set of laws of the Russian Empire in 1832 release.However, this Charter became operational only in 1835.It is composed of more than 40 thousand items, which eventually consisted of 15 volumes.The 16th book was released in 1864 and was known as "legal regulations".With the complete collection of the laws of the Russian Empire were included only functional documents.Some orders have been reduced.And among the marching against the decrees were given preference later versions.In addition, the compilers were designed to build the instruments so that they are consistent with the branches of the law.
As mentioned above, a complete collection of the laws of the Russian Empire consisted of 15 books.The first three contain the basic decrees, government regulations and so on.The fourth work includes recruiting regulations and county obligations.From 5 to 8 is shown drinking and tax fees, duties, and so on. In the 9th edition includes laws on estates and their powers.Tenth Meeting perpetuate HOAR and civil decrees.Books at number 11 and 12 regulate the credit and trade organizations, as well as all branches of industry.The following two volumes were distributed to medical practice included the subtleties of detention and so on. In the last part of work includes criminal orders.Code of Laws of the Russian Empire mainly pursued the principles of feudal law and was aimed at maintaining, protection and consolidation of the Tsarist regime.
operation of law in Ukraine
Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire began to operate in the territory in 1835.With only one difference - at that time they were regulated only administrative law and government relations.After that, during the period from 1840 to 1842 were gradually introduced order relating to criminal and civil law.This charter was acting in Ukraine until 1917.
With the onset of the XIX century the laws of the Russian Empire were subjected to a series of transformations.The first change affected the civil law, which at that time just beginning to move forward strides.Moreover, these changes were due to a significant increase in the volume of commercial and industrial areas.All adjustments on the subject have been made in the 10th book of the meeting decrees.It emphasized the right of ownership for their further strengthening.In this regard, all the property was divided into 2 types: movable and immovable.And the second is equally subdivided into generic and acquired.Due to the intensive expansion of commodity-money relations attention was paid to the issue of obligations.As a result, we came to the conclusion to conclude agreements with the consent of both parties.The law allows you to make the deal, not only in writing but also orally.In addition, it was agreed that "well-formed" contract must necessarily be implemented.Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire especially lit up this moment.So, we have provided the following guarantees:
- the payment of a penalty;
- pledge of movable or immovable property.
Basic Law of the Russian Empire in the first volume was adjusted marriage.Thus, it was stated that the men could start a family only at the age of 18.In turn, women received the right to 16 years of age.Persons who have reached 80 years old and did not have the opportunity to tie the matrimonial ties.In addition, the question of marriage is not only dependent on spouses, but also on the resolution of this action of parents, guardians or carers.In that case, if the man at the time of the award of the Union was in the military service, he had to obtain the written consent of his superiors at the ceremony.The city had no right to raise a family without your permission.Marriages between Christians and non-Christians were banned.It is also not allowed to enter into a new marriage relationship without termination of the previously concluded.Moreover, to make alliances of this kind could only 3 times.Marriage is legal only if it was made in the church.To terminate the union were allowed the same authority, and only in some cases.
basic laws of the Russian Empire separately covered property issues of citizens.Inherit property could be either by will or in accordance with established standards.Moreover, such acts can only citizens of the performance of 21 years and have legal rights to the alienated property.In addition, the will was valid only when it is drawing up writing.Inherit the property of mentally unhealthy person bequest was impossible.
By law, we can assume that 15 is the collection of laws marked the beginning of the development of criminal law in Russia.However, at that time there was still a number of controversial articles.They were discovered only after publication.In connection with the identification of problems in this area, MMSperansky was requested to prepare other Criminal Code.But it was only completed after his death.As evident from the decree of 1801, the use of torture during interrogations was banned.However, they continued to be used widely.A special role in the statute books withdrawn police.Her duties included carrying out investigative works and execution of the sentence.In turn, investigation activities are divided into preparatory and official.The reason for the initiation of the case was considered a denunciation, complaint or initiative of a prosecutor.Investigation process was carried out under the supervision of officials or prosecutorial side.
value in the history of
Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire to some extent take into account the interests of the emerging bourgeoisie.However, the monarchy tried by all means to retain power.To this end, in the state apparatus, even punitive units were created.At the same time a classification of works allowed to form a number of industries.Of course, the Code of Laws contained a lot of outdated rules, but such a colossal work has allowed Russia to significantly increase its credibility before the development of Europe.For information, having undergone a series of changes, this meeting lasted until 1917, until the revolution.