Psychology since its inception tried to divide people into types: so was derived theory of temperaments, physiological, social types.And for decades, psychologists have tried to deduce the types of characters.But it was difficult.
The fact that so many character traits, and to bring the major ones is impossible: something will forget.Therefore every theory subdividing people on the types of characters, has its drawbacks.Some of the theories were refuted, and did not survive to the present day.For example, physiognomy.It was based on the structural features of the face and skull, and explain the nature of man by his physiological type.This is rational: for facial wrinkles can really understand what the person in front of us in terms of emotionality (frown or cheerful).But only just.
types of characters and learn to identify the handwriting.At least, so it seemed at first scientist: graphology (the study of handwriting) helps to identify only some of the features.Too sprawling, sloppy or neat, meticulous - good psychologist can always identify the character traits of the person records.
most rational theory was recognized classification Licko and Leonhard (known researchers of psychology).Their teaching (and they brought their styles independently) came to our days, as well as psychological tests to determine the character.
essence theory is the fact that each person has a dominant traits in the character, and that they are the basis for the classification to a certain type.Most types have a name for that is absolutely clear about what the person in question:
- getting stuck (fixate on the details);
- hyperthymic (very active, even violent in some sense);
- labile (easily adapts to changed circumstances);
- hysteroid or artistic (each banal situation turns into a scene when it involves such a person), and others.
There is one "but" in this classification: character accentuation (the so called dominant and over-developed traits) appear only in adolescence.Maturity existence, facets of balanced and people to become mature person with a unique inherent features only to him, manifested in varying degrees.If accentuation saved, is wary.Psychologists in this situation, let alone the borderline between normality and pathology.In other words, by accentuation, for example, close to the schizoid schizophrenia, cycloid type of character can develop into a manic-depressive psychosis.And other diseases in the development of the personality associated with each accentuation of personal or Leonhard.
Yes, traits are balanced with age.But in adult life are observed in all primary and secondary qualities (without over-expression, as in the case of accentuation).It is possible to a great many combinations and types of lead character becomes an impossible task.But it should be noted, this view not all agreed, psychologists continue to try to accommodate the diversity in the types of characters, but they are not as ambitious as the theory of accentuation or physiognomy.
For a healthy person characterized by the development in several areas: attitude toward the world, people, work, creativity, and self.Through these areas and manifests itself in nature.Sociability, creativity, humility, creativity - qualities define hundreds - who we are.Moreover, they may be opposite.And each of them can be measured by appropriate tests.
Interestingly, over time, some features may recede into the background, there may be other and become a basic in nature.The human psyche - is famous for its amazing and infinite possibilities to adapt.