# What is the horizon?

information needed to guide on any terrain, is composed of three elements: distances, directions and guidelines (various objects on the ground).In encyclopedias give a definition of the horizon: it is visible to the eye line along which bordered the sky to the ground.

The Navy determined horizon of the sea a little different.Since ancient times, the fleet had its own navigation and some of their own definitions.The horizon of the sea marine encyclopedia - line connection of the sky and the water.Gaze (sighting beam) directed towards the line, located in the center circle of the visible water.

## How to navigate in an unfamiliar place

landmark can be any well-visible objects that something stand out.This can be a massive stone or rock on a flat surface.In the forest, so a guide can serve as any tree, accordingly, it must somehow stand out, eye-catching, to make it easier to remember.

What is the horizon?No matter in what part of the world is a man constantly has space around it: really see the circle - it is the horizon.

people found this circle a few points in particular stand out.They noticed that the stars in the sky are moving in a circle, and one of them as it is in the same place on the horizon.It's the North Star.Further, people pay attention to the property of certain magnetized objects in the suspended state - they are always rotated at one end in its direction.Gradually the circle of the horizon outlined four key points (horizon) - north, south, west, east.These names are the cardinal relevant today.

## Determination of the horizon

With the North Star, or specially magnetized objects (a compass, the astrolabe) people can, being anywhere on the planet, to determine the direction of the north, and then got up to face him, to find on the sides of his body remainingmain directions: behind - south right - east, on the left - west.

## angle to the horizon and degrees

Each quarter circle horizon accommodates 90 degrees.The plane of the horizon is divided into small segments in an amount equal to 360 pieces - can be compared to the approximate number of days in a year.Each of these segments has been named the word "degree" and receive a personal serial number - from 1 to 360.

believed degrees from a certain point - a point the horizon, located at the North Star.From her counting from the right (clockwise).

angle following definition: it is formed by two rays emanating from a single point (a course of mathematics of the middle classes).Each degree circle - a specific angle.

## Azimut main parties horizon

Simple geometric angle has two arbitrary beam.This means that they may be directed in any direction of space.And there is a special azimuth beam - it is sent to a single direction, to the north.As you know, in the geometry of the interior angles have a maximum value of up to 180 degrees (straight angle), but the azimuth could be more, that is, 0-360 degrees.

This implies that the azimuth - angle, which is formed by two beams, one of them is directed to the north, the second - on the landmark.Azimut main parties horizon is measured in degrees, and clockwise is counted from zero.

## measurement azimuth terrain

Now a little about the ways of the world.The horizon line is marked not only the four main points (it is directed from the center rays - north, south, west, east), but also intermediate - located in the center and located between the two main.For example, between the north and the east at an angle of 45 degrees is carried intermediate direction.It is referred to as the north-east.Exactly the same trend is constructed in each quadrant.Thus it turns out "azimuth ring", it still marked the direction of 22.5 degrees, the bearing supporting role.They are designated as the north-east-west, north-east and so on. D.

traveler with experience to easily determine the north direction in any weather and at any time.Then it will be easy to find the right direction and without a compass.You will need a good knowledge of azimuth ring.

Azimuth - an angle that can be measured or build.It is not difficult to draw a pencil on paper and on the ground to measure the reticle beam (eye).On a map or in a simple notebook to measure and build azimuths convenient simple protractor - protractor.To do this, mark the center point, the sides of the horizon.Next on the need to draw a straight between corners.Identify desired visible in the drawing and from the point of compass generate traffic at an angle to the horizon, to the point north.Get the angle, which is called azimuth.

on the map has a lot of the usual vertical lines - is the eastern and the western edge of the frame and line of rectangular coordinates with the direction of the north.But the vertical grid lines are sometimes not quite parallel to frame card - form an angle.It is not very large and therefore usually not taken into account.

example, the need to measure the azimuth of the line route from point A to point B. protractor center (zero point) is superimposed on the point A, one of its axes rotated so that it is parallel to the vertical lines of the map, further degree scaleprotractor degrees removed counting from point A to point B.

Compasses Compasses have a different design.The most widely used is the compass, which was constructed in the XIX century Russian surveyor Peter Adrianov.The name of his correspondence - Compass Hadrian.In those days, compasses were made of brass, today they are made of plastic.

Hadrian Compass has five components: body, sighting ring dial, magnetic needle and clamp.

round case connects and consolidates all of the design.At the center of his short fixed into steel needle is pushed at her hand.On the side are two slots, through which passes a strap that is tightened on his arm, like a clock.Sometimes attached string to wear around the neck of the compass.At the top is a groove with springs made of brass, with their help is attached to the body and rotate sighting ring.

sighting ring inserted in the glass on its upper edge, there are two tabs - fly and peephole.Under them are located on the inner side two triangular lugs which are covered with special composition, glow in the dark.These projections are pointers and turning the ring show the countdown degrees on the scale of the compass.

main part of the compass - a magnetized needle.It is cut from a steel plate.The end of the arrow pointing to the north, is also covered by the composition, glow in the dark.To rotate the arrow on the needle easily, at its center is a small lens that reduces the inhibitory effect of the rotating parts.On the bottom side there is a tapered recess, it relies on the arrow needle that provides rotation circumferentially.

Limb - white ring with graduations.It is similar to the azimuthal ring.It has a long bar that is coated with a luminous composition - is the origin of divisions.There are three points that glow in the dark, and above them are letters indicating the compass.Each division of the compass is three degrees.

Clip - springy metal plate bent in half.When it is pushed out through a slit in the housing, the ends of the plate is compressed, releasing the arrow of the compass, and it is their lens 'sits' on the needle.When the clip is pushed inward compass - rose springs straightened, taking a needle pointer and pressing it against the glass.In this position, the compass is closed and arrow is not valid.

## Modern types of compasses

Now, almost all the tourists enjoy the athletic liquid compass with it more convenient and easier to work with.His hand is in a special capsule, which is filled with liquid.It allows to set the north arrow direction for several seconds.There are many different models of sports compasses, their limb has a precise scale interval - up to 2 degrees.The capsule is placed directly on the board compass, having a measuring ruler.On the motherboard, and applied on the capsule parallel spaced lines, which considerably simplifies the cards.

Modern compasses can be worn on the wrist and in the neck by a strap.The flask and its charges are made of impact-resistant materials, they work well in different climates.

## Handling compass

necessary to protect the device from impact, especially for liquid products.Their body is formed in a plate shape, therefore, is very fragile.Also avoid Neighborhood compass with objects made of metal - it negatively affects the magnetic needle.When the compass is not in use, it should be worn on the arm or neck or just clean in his pocket.

## Rules of the compass

There are four types of action with a compass:

1. Knowing what the horizon, with the help of a compass, you can find him.Just open catch, and the arrow itself will show the North direction.The task is made: defining the north, it is easy to find the other side of the world.It is enough to recall the azimuthal ring.
2. Working with the map of the compass.It is necessary to orient the map to the sides of the horizon.To do this, she turns so that the alignment lines on the map are parallel to the axis of the compass arrow, and the top of these lines was heading in the wrong direction, which looks magnetized north end of the arrow.So, knowing that such a horizon, you can competently navigate around the map.Compass is placed on the map so that it took place under the eastern and western side of the card.Next, open arrow, after she becomes calm, should rotate the map with the compass until the border line and the arrow will not be on the same line.It is necessary to ensure that they are exactly on the straight line and the top of the card "looks" exactly to the north.Now the card is correctly oriented in the right direction, and it is possible to determine the direction ready for any observation point, and local objects, that is, the visible horizon.
3. resection direct - action guide who, knowing the azimuth, outlines guidelines for communicating it, and then move to the desired goal.
4. resection reverse - the action of the conductor, when he saw the goal and knowing that it will soon be hidden from view using the compass determines the magnetic bearing on landmark-target.It helps by direct serif exit to the right place through arranged one behind the other and communicating guidelines.

From this it follows that there are two possibilities:

1. not have a full review of the area, but there is a magnetic azimuth of the desired target (taken from the card).
2. Review terrain available and visible landmark.Suppose a man stands on a hill surrounded by woods, and he knows that when it begins to move, aim for long hidden from his eyes.And then he would have to go your way along the azimuth (direct serifs).

In a first embodiment the bearing obtained from the map, in the second - by the sight on the target.

1. Index flies mounted on the division of the limb, which corresponds to the desired azimuth.
2. compass needle opens, and it focused on the limb, ie nulshtrih limb brought under the north end of the arrow by turning the housing.
3. Sight (squinting his eyes) - you need to look through the slot on the fly eye, then the eye sees in the distance a certain item, which was on the fly (pass landmark).
4. now control check is made of whether performed 2 or 3 steps.Compass position does not change, then hand closes.

Direct notch is defined, at the same time to calculate the approximate distance to the horizon.You can then head to the entrance landmark, it is important not to lose.For example, in the woods sighting beam (opinion) is limited to a specific tree that is taken for passing the landmark.It should be good to remember and not to be confused with others.As these benchmarks should be chosen distant objects, because reaching them again to be repeated line notch.This operation takes time.

## definition azimuth visible landmark - Resection

1. compass needle is opened, then roughly (approximately) on the dial is adjusted clockwise.Fly also approximately directed to the landmark by turning the sighting ring.
2. Next limb is fixed on the arrow and precisely adjusted to the benchmark flies.
3. Further checks nulshtriha if he strayed from the northern end, the second action is repeated.
4. the limb removed count, the arrow is closed.

## Direct and resections on the compass liquid

Direct:

1. compass placed on the map so that its side edge touches the starting point and final movement.
2. rotating part of the compass is rotated so that the risks are parallel to map the magnetic meridian.Double the risk should look to the north.
3. Next card is removed.The body is held horizontally and turns to the north end of the arrow located on the body between a double risk.In this position, the center line of the plate will indicate the direction of motion.Footprints in the course of the guide is not necessary, you should only look to the arrow did not change his position.This ensures that extract azimuth movement.Liquid compass, unlike the usual, not only keeps the direction on the move, but also on the run.It should only learn how to hold it in a horizontal position.

Contact:

1. Compass held in the horizontal position, a reference is directed to the side or axial edge of the housing.
2. Then it turns to the capsule until the arrow appears between double the risk of pointing due north.Next you need to watch how many degrees is shown on the limb near the centerline.

now bearing obtained, it is necessary to write it in a notebook.Knowing what the horizon and azimuth to the desired reference point, you can safely go on a journey, making the serifs, moving to the desired goal through communicating guidelines.

But we should not forget that everyone is human nature to make mistakes in everything, including work with the compass.Anyone can make a mistake quite different ways to confuse the ends of the arrows guide the limb inaccurate, wrong endorsing the desired object.Any mistake can be very costly.Because, being in an unfamiliar place, especially far from populated areas, it is easy to get lost.Therefore, travelers must be very careful and check several times.

Less compass Hadrian that his hand is very fluid, and it is rather difficult to establish exactly on the zero bar limb.It makes more sense to put the compass to any support for greater accuracy.Suitable tree stump in the woods or just stick stuck in the ground.Still to be reinsured - serifs do not one, but several people in two or more of the compass.Each conductor has a stunt double duty: together they both make the serifs.If the results come together, then everything is fine.If they differ slightly, the average value is taken.But when calculations do not match, the job is necessary to alter completely.

in motion a campaign is divided into two versions: hard bearing (no card is strictly azimuth) and the motion on the situation (for rides, trails, roads), in the latter case, the group focused on further approximate direction of motion (azimuth guidance).

Quite often the way it is impossible to move the sighting beam because obstacles prevent rivers, swamps, steep hillsides overgrown thicket of forest areas.In this case, use the following tactic: alternate alternate deviation of the azimuth.For example, one hurdle left to costs, the other - on the right.After each bypass further direction is adjusted.

When motion is azimuth deviation of three degrees gives the approximate displacement of the exit point five percent.Therefore, the course is laid at intervals of azimuth (orientation) of individual segments.

ability to deal with a map and compass - the basic skills of the traveler.