Mesopotamia, or the famous Mesopotamia - here lie the origins of civilization in the Middle East and West Asia.The region is very fertile and is carried out in due time for the residents similar to the African Nile function - feeding and watering the many communities of people.
ancient birthplace of civilization
Tigris River is one of the most full-flowing rivers of the Earth.Since ancient times, the tribes settled along the course of the large rivers, and this was no exception.It was in the valley and its current parallel to the Euphrates River in the fourth millennium BC centers formed the first civilizations.There were well fortified, with developed economy of the city.They quickly took possession of the population different kinds of crafts and architecture.The favorable climate allows residents several times a year to remove the rich harvests.This gave the surplus product and a direct impact on the further development and emergence of public entities.In Mesopotamia, the creators of the city-states became the Sumerians.The history of this people and its origins to the present poorly understood and have many dark spots.Suffice it to mention that the language of this nation does not correlate with any modern language family.
origins of rivers and geographical information
River Tigris, as, indeed, and its larger neighbor, the Euphrates originates in the heights of the Armenian highlands.It is here that the melting glaciers over the millennia give life to the two largest rivers in West Asia.The length of the Tiger is almost two thousand kilometers (1890 km) and a swimming pool - 378 sq.km.Euphrates - more longest river.It flows for almost three thousand kilometers (2790 km).Pool 1065 sq.km.Beginning in the mountains, on the plains of Mesopotamia, they form the top of a vast valley.Both rivers have broad channel with sloping banks, which in some areas form a fairly significant deviations and kontruklony.The Tiger fall four large tributaries: the Great Zab, Botan, Little Zab and Diyala.Therefore, for it much faster than the Euphrates, which flow into tributaries of the following: Tohma, hexyl, Belih, Habur.
merger into a new river
When entering the nizhnemesopotamskuyu lowland rivers slows down, forming a vast wetlands.Rivers fall into several large and small arms.There Euphrates hardly gets water from tributaries.At the same time the river Tigris powered water Zagros.Therefore, at this point it is much more full-flowing his brother.The waters of the two rivers is often bottled.However, they can dramatically change the landscape of the area.At 195 kilometers from the Persian Gulf, near the Iraqi town of Qurnah, the two rivers merge.This forms a single channel of the Shatt al-Arab.This is the country in which the river Tigris combined into a single unit to the Euphrates!It should be noted that the Shatt al-Arab appeared not so long ago, in the historical period, and it is connected with the gradual retreat of the waters of the Persian Gulf.Flowing through the territory of Iraq and Iran border land, it is the Iraqi town of Al-Kishly flows into the bay above.
flora and fauna of Mesopotamia
Where is the river Tigris, was once a rich flora and fauna.Since ancient times, the water resource to the population gave a lot of fish.In addition, the adjacent green belt is also rife with different kinds of mammals.Anthropogenic impact in the form of numerous dams and channels, most of which are built in violation of the norms of all kinds, have caused and continue to cause enormous damage to the basin of the Tigris.Also in the river illegally dumped sewage into areas large settlements.Water from her now represents a mortal danger because of the presence there of agents of dangerous diseases.The river fauna was severely damaged from the impact of human and technological factors.Little value fisheries.Although the river is still inhabited carp, catfish, people are afraid to eat it.In the Baghdad area in Tigre can observe sharks, bulls, intermittent from the Persian Gulf.
important resource in the Middle East
So where is the river Tigris?Currently, the major waterway flows through six countries.It is Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Jordan.Water is essential for all parts of the earth, and all nations of the world.It was in this region, mainly represented by the Arab states, there is a great shortage of this important component of a fulfilling life.Here are the dry southern zones and vast deserts, so ancient river Tigris and Euphrates they are essential.These major water basins in West Asia many tributaries that flow in different countries of the region.Border rivers are the subject of a bitter dispute between the states of the Middle East.In 1987, a tripartite agreement was signed between Syria, Iraq and Turkey, according to which the parties committed themselves together to restrict water flow.
environmental problems and their solutions
Recently, the country on whose territory the river Tigris, seriously attended to her accomplishment.The damage to her, according to preliminary estimates of experts of the United Nations, more than 84% of its original building.Gone are many endemics.In view of the extremely negative environmental situation in the basin formed by the Trilateral Commission.At the initiative of Turkey was established Joint Water Institute, which consists of experts from various fields of science.The plans of the organization including the harmonization of construction of hydraulic structures on the river.In addition, it is designed to monitor careful spending of water resources participating countries.Iraq also attended the state of the river within its territory.In 2012, the government of the Arab country adopted a program of wastewater discharged into the Tigris.It is also envisaged the construction of several wastewater treatment facilities in major population centers of the state.Nevertheless, the situation around the two rivers is still quite tense.Differences of countries for which these waterways flow, do not allow to establish effective use and conservation of water.