Dispersion - a rainbow?

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In life, we are constantly confronted with the variance, but not always notice it, or sometimes do not even know what it is.Now we will consider in more detail, which is a dispersion.The first clear example of it is the usual rainbow.There is hardly a man who would never have admired this beautiful phenomenon.According to ancient legend, at the foot of the rainbow, you can find a pot full of gold.We are so used to seeing a rainbow, it seems that we have everyday, and we will not delve into its nature.In fact, her every appearance is accompanied by complex physical processes with which we try to understand this article.

In the most general sense of the variance - is the refraction of light.Passing through the prism, the light beam is refracted and falls into a different color.You can easily check at home.After a little experience.On a sunny day, you need to close the curtains tight and make a small hole in it, through which the room will penetrate a narrow ray.On the opposite wall from the window of this beam will form a light spot.We put it on the path of the beam glass prism.Now we can see that the variance - a condition for the appearance of the rainbow, because the spot on the wall became colored.In it you can see all the colors of the rainbow, from red to violet.

Thus, the dispersion - is the optical phenomenon caused by the dependence of refractive index of the frequency of the light (wavelength) or the dependence of the phase velocity of light waves on the frequency or wavelength.The consequence is a degradation of the dispersion of the light beam in the spectrum as it passes through a glass prism.The dispersion of light was discovered in 1672 by Newton, who was involved in active learning spectrum.

Newton first conducted similar experiments.At the beginning of our era it was known about the decomposition of the light spectrum as it passes through the large single crystals.The first explorers of refraction was an English scientist T. Hariot and Czech scientist J. Marci, but it was Newton began to seriously analyze this process.

Newton spent a whole range of tests and experiments with prisms.The results of his research has been described in detail in "Lectures on Optics", "Optics" and "theory of light and colors."Newton was able to prove that white light is not the basis for all the others, but on the contrary - it is not uniform.Various types of dispersion, ie the decomposition of white light into its component parts, there by passing the beam through different prisms and prisms group.The decomposition of light is because each color is characterized by a certain degree of refrangibility.Each color has its own specific properties.Dispersions demonstrate their difference.Completed research scientist for the modern physicists are of great interest from the point of view of not only the results but also the methodology.From his research, Newton set the task not to put forward a hypothesis to explain the properties of light and the facts and arguments.Scientist put a lot of experimentation, noting that "an abundance of experiences does not stop."

Directing a beam of light on a glass prism, Newton was able to see on the screen a kind of rainbow.Scientists have identified seven basic colors, which we are all now well aware.Why seven?That seven colors were more vivid.In addition, the music is also only seven notes, but their variations allow you to create true works of art, unlike each other.He then spent a return experience, giving variety to the brink of another glass prism.At the same time again to get white light.As a result, Newton had the idea to create a circle with seven sectors of different colors, in the course of rotation again will turn white light.

Thus, the variance - a complex physical process, due to the properties of light and color.And it is through this process we can see a rainbow after a storm.Now you have an idea from a scientific perspective on the causes of the appearance of the rainbow.