Plant diseases - one of the main causes of crop losses both in quantitative and qualitative terms.The damage causes a number of pathogenic microorganisms, fungi, viruses, bacteria.
for controlling plant diseases in agriculture should be used fungicide.This chemical, a special kind of pesticide, which is able to fight off pathogens of various crops.
why fungicides are needed?
fungicide for plants used for the purpose of:
- fight the disease in the period of formation and development of culture;
- increasing the productivity of crops and fruit market attractiveness;
- increase the shelf life of harvested fruits, vegetables, tubers and seeds;
- eliminate the risk of diseases and poisoning in humans and animals, taking in food plants are damaged.
fungicides role in the management of diseases
The number of technical measures aimed at improving yield and quality of harvested fruit, occupy a vital role fungicidal agents.In practice, they are able to adequately control the emergence and development of plant diseases.However, they significantly increase the cost of agricultural crops.
To maximize the result of fungicides applied to the preparations of the disease or at the first appearance of symptoms.This is primarily due to the fact that the damage caused by plant diseases is not compensated.Chemical agents are able to protect only the new uninfected areas.
Manufacturers use protective drugs at the level of the minimum thresholds.Typically, they are used for prevention based on the predictions of agronomists.This is done to reduce the cost of the final product, and hence improve the profitability of the enterprise, as well as to protect the environment from exposure to chemicals.
fungicidal drugs are available in powder, pellet, gas or liquid form.They are used in such cases:
1. Processing of seeds, bulbs, seedlings.Procedures can be done both in the seed company, and directly before planting.Traditionally used:
- Preparation "fundazol."Available as a powder, has a wide spectrum of action, the solution is prepared in a ratio 1 g of preparation per 1 liter of water.
- means "fitosporin-M."Used to prevent fungal and bacterial diseases.It is valuable because it has a low toxicity, is not dangerous for the bees.
- Preparation "Maxim-COP".Effectively used for dressing potatoes before planting, as well as the roots of seedlings.Not toxic to plants, birds and insects, nizkotoksichen for people.As dangerous for fish, can not be allowed to enter the drug in water.
2. Seedbed in furrows or holes, and depending on the landing.Used usually liquid fungicidal formulations for impregnation by drip irrigation or as a directed spray around the base of the plant.
3. Treatment of leaves and other aerial parts of the plants with a sprayer.They can be used as a small, hand-held devices, and huge capacity, tractors or transported by air.
for processing use such fungicidal:
- pesticides "Topaz."Apply as a preventive measure and as a treating drug.It has a wide range of actions.Toxic to insects, so this drug treatment of plants in the flowering period is prohibited.Hazard - 3.
- means "Vectra".The drug also prevents and treats the plant at the same time many fungal diseases.Available as a solution in vials of 2 or 5 ml.Non-toxic to plants, low toxicity to humans and animals, but for the bees silnotoksichen.Therefore, during the flowering plants do not use the drug.
- Preparation "HOME" (or "oksihom").The fungicide is a broad-spectrum, highly effective and nizkotoksichen.Allowed to use 3 weeks before harvest.
- sulfur colloid.Available in powder form.Effectively fights against powdery mildew and scab.Non-toxic, so its use is permitted for a few days before the harvest.
4. Injections trees through grafting.
5. Processing plants indoors.The air greenhouses releases chemicals in the gas form.Such funds are called "fumigants".This method is very effective against pathogens because the resultant smoke or fog completely envelops the plant and provide simultaneous processing of all its parts.
For areas covered ground using HCN, chloropicrin, dichloropropene, carbon disulfide, ethylene dibromide-1.
In any type of processing the sustainable reuse of fungicides not later than 5 days after the first etching.This is due to the chemical action of the drug on the light, temperature and erosive influence of natural factors such as rain, wind.
Types of fungicides and determination
Fungicides are classified in several ways based on different characteristics:
1. Mobility in the plant.The most optimal combination of efficiency and security are bi-directional chemicals that do not remain on the surface, soaking the roots, moving up the stem to the leaves and also flexibly move from the leaves to the roots.
2. Role in the Protection: preventive or curative.
3. Perimeter steps: at one site or multiple.
4. Pharmacological effects.The antifungal drugs can kill fungi, damaging their cellular membranes, inactivate enzymes critical for life or proteins interfering in key processes such as the production of energy or breath.Some recently developed products are unique in that they do not directly affect the pathogen itself.These remedies produce from the host plant so-called "system acquired resistance" (STC).These SPU induced chemical signals that activate specific defense mechanisms such as thickening of the cell walls and development of antifungal proteins.E. The plant as it gets immunity from disease-causing organisms.
5. Type of chemical composition: inorganic or organic.Many of the first fungicides were inorganic compounds based on sulfur or metal ions, such as copper, tin, cadmium and mercury, are toxic not only fungi but also to the plants themselves.Copper and sulfur are still widely used.Organic
are those containing carbon atoms in the molecular structure of chemical compounds.Today is mainly used just such fungicidal agents.These agents are non-toxic not only for the flora, but also to insects, animals, and humans.Have the class of danger 4. They disastrous effect on the pathogens, while maintaining the health of the agro-ecosystem.