Many chemicals used by man in various industries.These include the drill.It is used in industry, agriculture, engineering, medicine, life and so on. N. What is drill?This mineral, which is also called sodium borate or tinkalom, has unique properties.
So what is the drill?This compound crystallizes in monosimmetricheskoy system.His appearance it resembles columns augite.Translated from the Persian its name means "white."Transparent drill, the use of which is possible after thorough processing of crystals, almost colorless or slightly grayish.For it is characteristic shine and sweet, alkaline taste.The substance is soluble in water.For this purpose, usually 1 part tinkala taking 14 parts water.The melting point of the mineral under consideration is 60.8 ° C.When melting blowtorch fire turns a yellowish color, and the substance thus turns into a colorless glass.
chemical composition of borax
Let's look at what the drill in terms of chemistry.The formula of the substance: Na2B4O7.In most cases, it exists as crystalline Na2B4O7 • 10H2O, which corresponds to 16% of hydroxide, 37% boric acid and 47% water.Borax is the raw material for the preparation of compounds contained therein.Quality controlled substances GOST 8429-77.In the sale of sodium tetraborate (borax) enters as a white crystalline powder whose quality depends on various elements and chemical purity.The product comes in two grades: A (mass concentration of borax is not less than 99.5%) and B (94%).Also, it contains carbonates, sulfates, lead and arsenic.
Mining and receiving drills
This material is most often extracted under natural conditions.What is a drill in the broad sense of the word?This mineral belongs to the class of borates.It is a chemical precipitate of drying salt lakes.In Europe, the substance in question first appeared after he was found in a Tibetan salt lakes.It was from there and takes it another name - tinkal.Rich brown California certain shallow lakes, where it produces relatively large crystals.On sale you can find technical and food sodium tetraborate.
In 1748 borax from boric acid and soda for the first time was a French chemist Enuvil.And nowadays some enterprises engaged in the production of artificial sodium tetraborate decahydrate.Borax with his hands can be obtained by neutralizing boric acid with sodium carbonate, with subsequent evaporation of the mixture and filtration.This process is based on a chemical reaction: Na2C03 + 4N3VO3 = 6H2O + CO2 + Na2B407.The container is prepared soda solution and heated to 95-100? C, stirring constantly.Then to pour boric acid.To the solution is foamed, it is added in small portions.The ratio between the components must be such that the solution contains 16-20% Na2B407 and 0,5-1,0% Na2C03.The mixture was boiled for 30 minutes, filtered and cooled to give crystals.Artificial mineral chemistry different from natural rhombohedral crystals and contains minimal amounts of water.It can only be used in technical and medical applications.
technical application of this material is quite diverse.Borax is a component of flux for welding of metals, including precious.As part of the charge is used in the production of glass, enamels, glazes, as it is an indispensable source of boron oxide.It is used for the manufacture of antiseptics, insecticides, and as a preservative during handling of raw hides.Borax need for electrolytes in metallurgy.
Tinkal a feedstock in the manufacture of sodium perborate, which is the main component of the oxygen-bleach detergent powder in synthetic media.To improve the cleaning properties and maintain the desired viscosity, pH, giving the ability to form the emulsion include sodium tetraborate in the household and industrial cleaning agents, and natirok polishes.Borax is used for the manufacture of lubricants, brake fluids;and it is indispensable in the manufacture of antifreeze, because it, entering into engagement with the iron corrosion inhibitor forms a complex compound.It is used in the manufacturing process of various adhesives.
Application of borax in the home
This mineral has long been used by people as a natural cleanser.Hammer borax used for effective cleaning of sanitary ware.Want your toilet shone?No question, it will be enough to pour into it 1 cup of ground mineral and leave overnight.After cleaning the plumbing in the morning brushing can remove almost any hard output of pollution.As a detergent, an aqueous solution of borax (2 h. L. 0.5 l water).
This unique material can be used to fight fleas and cockroaches.Thus, in places where pests are periodically sprinkled powder borax.You do not have to worry about fumes: in small amounts, it is not harmful to humans and animals.
to combat mold preparing a thick paste of water and borax.Its moldy spread on the surface and left for 12-24 hours.Dried pasta sweep brush and wash away the remnants of water.This facility is only suitable for relatively water-resistant surfaces.In addition, borax is used together with starch processing collars and cuffs.It is applied and the wash items made of wool (1 hr. L. 1 liter of water).What for?Very simple: to make products soft.
sodium tetraborate is used as an antiseptic to rinse, douching, treatment of the skin and mouth.For this purpose, glycerol (20%) or aqueous solutions of borax.Alcohol solution does not exist, because the substance is insoluble in alcohol.Keep borax should be in a tightly closed container and away from children, because in large quantities and high concentrations it can cause health damage.