Example idioadaptation animals and plants

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idioadaptatsy, along with aromorphosis, is one of the main evolutionary processes of living organisms.Unlike the latter, it contributes to the appearance of animals and plants are not common, and the particular changes that can be related to the geographical features of the territory of their habitat and other factors the external environment.

striking example

most striking example idioadaptation among living beings - is the prevalence of related species in different categories, and often contrasting latitudinal zones.This is especially observed at the canine and wolf.Their representatives can be found in almost all parts of the globe, from the Arctic to the tropics zone.And due to the formation of various types have idioadaptatsy, and this greatly reduces competition between them.

Types idioadaptation

Depending on changes in the structure of the body or life processes decided to allocate the following types idioadaptation:

  • According to the structure of the body. These devices are associated with the transformation of the limbs, organs or the whole body, depending on the nature of the landscape, the type of food, the presence of the species and intraspecific competition (particularly fish body shape, long neck giraffe, atrophied wings of birds).
  • By coloring. Skin Discoloration can be seasonal or depend on the state of the organism.A striking example is idioadaptation "winter" and "summer" painting of a rabbit.You can also select the chameleon and octopuses that change color depending on the ambient temperature, when frightened or threatening opponent.Some organisms have a very bright, causing the colors of the epidermis.This is called a "warning" color.It often can be found on poisonous reptiles and insects.It is also a good example idioadaptation - mimicry.It can be found in the non-hazardous wildlife.They use bright colors to protect against predators, thus misleading them.
  • By the nature of movement. Such devices formed in the animals exposed to the environment of their permanent habitat.The fish were air bags, allowing them to stay in the water, forelimbs seals and walruses were transformed into fins, and the birds got keel and long bones for easy and smooth flight.
  • reproduction. As you know, there are several types of reproduction, which were formed under the influence of the environment and evolution.Some organisms are viviparous, fish spawn, reptiles lay eggs, and insects - larvae.
  • to adapt to environmental conditions .It's simple: depending on the climatic conditions of the natural area, which is home to the body, formed by one or another idioadaptation.Examples: subcutaneous fat from representatives of the polar fauna, seasonal molt, camel's hump.

idioadaptatsy animals

consider the most striking examples idioadaptation animals.Among the mammals with the most prominent type of private fitness can be identified anteater.His mouth is gradually transformed into a trunk, some teeth atrophied as unnecessary, and the language has acquired considerable length and elasticity.Such metamorphoses were caused by the peculiarities of this type of food.With the structure of the jaw Aardvark much easier to extract their favorite delicacy - termites and insects.However, the lack of basic food it becomes very vulnerable, such as the structure of the mouth greatly narrows the range of possible food sources that may affect the quantitative composition of the population and increase intraspecific competition.

Various changes in the structure of the body of a mole - as a good example idioadaptation.His legs have adapted to digging the earth, atrophied ears, the eyes do not have the lens and the retina due to the lack of light and the properties of wool allow the animal to move in a narrow underground passage in either direction.

idioadaptatsy birds

general, a great variety of birds on the planet by itself is the result of multiple devices.We feathered fauna idioadaptation often manifested in the transformation of the various parts of the body.For example, depending on the type of power supply, various species of birds observed fundamentally different beak shape.In tropical parrots and toucans that part of the body differ significantly in size and massiveness, which allows them to easily eat large fruit and nuts.Small birds have beaks pointed and elongated shape for the production of the main sources of food - seeds and insects.

another example idioadaptation - the transformation of the limbs.So waterfowl were webbed, and eagles and hawks - powerful claws to hunt rodents.Also pay attention to the wings.In ostriches and penguins, they are absent because of habitat on the plains, and a rather large weight.

idioadaptatsy fish

streamlined body shape and the presence of air bubbles - private changes inherent in almost all marine life.At the same time in connection with accommodation at different depths in many individual idioadaptation began to appear.

In the upper layers of the ocean, you can find a huge variety of tropical fish, but their bright colors they are primarily obliged a large number of penetrating sunlight.But, for example, bottom dwellers differ in their structural features.They are adapted to high pressure water column due to the flat shape of the body (stingrays, flounder).

idioadaptatsy insects

Insects - living beings, the most prone to idioadaptation.They, like many microbes have learned to withstand various critical conditions created by the environment.The most obvious example is the painting idioadaptation insects.Bright chitin cover certain types warns predators of their toxicity.But harmless insects got a similar color as a fraud, but at the same time very effective remedy.

idioadaptatsy plants

Depending on the soil type, the nature of the climate, as well as under the influence of environmental conditions formed idioadaptation plants.Examples:

  • in desert regions where there is a significant shortage of water and a large amount of solar radiation, plants have adapted to survive at the expense of long and very-developed root system and small leaves, covered with a layer of hard cuticle.
  • In polar regions the plant is not very large in size, their growing season almost halved, and the leaves - very small and leathery.
  • waterlogged conditions in the plants transformed with its leafy plates, which have become very wide and smooth, so as not to absorb excess water.