Today nuclear weapons is one of the most exciting types of WMD (weapons of mass destruction).The principle of its action is based on chain reactions that occur in the process of fission of some isotopes or nuclear fusion of light chemical elements into heavier ones.
Simply speaking, the effect of nuclear weapons is either fission or the fusion of the nuclei of elements.In the first case here include such metals are often referred to as uranium and plutonium.The synthesis involves the use of isotopes of hydrogen: deuterium and tritium.
In addition, under the nuclear weapons meant not only the proper ammunition, and their combination with the controls and add-delivery to the site of action.
types of nuclear weapons
Ammunition for the weapons of this type are very diverse.They may be issued in the form of missile warheads and bombs, as well as in the form of mines, artillery shells, torpedoes.There are three main categories in which adopted distribute ammunition: neutron, and nuclear fusion.Each type has its own characteristics and features.
example, charges neutron type have the smallest capacity among the above.They are designed to engage personnel.Nevertheless, even the explosion of the projectile on its destructive force superior to any non-nuclear weapons types of several hundred times.Neutron bombs are used in two-phase applications where most of the energy released by nuclear fusion.For this reason, they correctly attributed to thermonuclear type.
Action thermonuclear charges is based, as the name implies, in the fusion reactions that occur between the chemical elements.They are used in two-phase devices where a time, but in different proportions, flow of two physical processes: nuclear fission and fusion.Well-known to all, the term "hydrogen bomb" - is another name for the variety of thermonuclear weapons.
Ammunition, which are the name of nuclear weapons of mass destruction used in the single-phase devices.They use chain reactions that occur in the fission of heavy isotopes of plutonium and uranium.This produces a light chemical elements.The last two types of charges are considered to be the most destructive.
shock wave of a nuclear explosion
There are many factors affecting the nuclear weapons of mass destruction.These include light radiation (about 1,000 watts per square centimeter versus 0.14 W emitted by the sun), which causes a sharp temperature rise and, as a result of his numerous burns (from mild redness to full carbonization), eye damage, fire surfaces.The following ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination of the surrounding area.
explosion has indirect epidemiological impact, as well as causing the strongest electromagnetic pulse.Last, though not dangerous to living things, breaks down all the technical devices in the affected area.But the largest share of damage from a nuclear explosion shock wave is responsible.It is originally a small area, where the expansion of the volume of hot gas is a sharp compression of air.
This reaction is caused by two factors: the temperature of a million degrees in the explosion and the same extremely high pressure.Further, this wave is spreading rapidly from the epicenter in all directions, causing the destruction of everything that is on its way.Gradually, as the distance from the source, the shock wave becomes weaker and of a supersonic converted into sound.
extent of damage and destruction
facilities for the weakest consequences will be demolished roofs, broken doors, walls and windows.Also included are cracks appearing in the walls of buildings on the upper floors.But the closer to the epicenter, the higher the intensity of the waves and terrible consequences: it is completely destroyed, not only the upper parts of the buildings, but even supporting structures.In the best case (and with a successful arrangement) only partially preserved basement of the building.
no less destructive shock wave of a nuclear explosion and for the people.The wreckage of the destroyed buildings, broken glass, stones and other flying with great speed, the objects are an indirect source of physical damage to all living beings caught nearby.By directly affecting factors include the strong pressure of the air (even at a distance of 10 km from the explosion speed reaches more than 100 kilometers per hour) and the region excessively high pressure.