no secret that food nutrients used by the body, in fact, we need their constant replenishment.But what role they play, and what kind of foods contain?
all there are six types of nutrients that the human body uses: water, minerals, vitamins, proteins, fats, carbohydrates.This basic nutrients derived from food, which are used to maintain tissue viability, their renewal, providing power to the physiological activity and the regulation of metabolism.The need for them have lifelong, each agent performs certain functions.
mechanism of absorption of nutrients by the body
nutrient absorption takes place only after splitting, alone they are not absorbed.Enzyme cleavage seep through the walls of the digestive tract, getting into the bloodstream.Proteins, fats and carbohydrates provide the body with fuel in the form of calories.Water, minerals, vitamins function as building and consumables that are not less important.
This universal solvent is involved in almost all the vital processes of the body:
- water nourishes the cells, preventing them from dehydration;
- transports substances and hormones to all organs;
- water helps to burn fat by recycling the cells for energy;its use in sufficient quantity reduces appetite;
- activates the kidneys;
- digestion and the output of waste products of the body are carried out in a liquid medium.
Lack of water inevitably leads to dysfunction of internal organs, increase in fat tissue.Brain cells first begin to experience water shortages.
Minerals Minerals can be classified into two groups: macro- and microelements.A sufficient number of them in the body responsible for the strength of the musculoskeletal system, water and acid-base balance, promotes protein-coupled lipids, strengthens the nervous system and so forth. Trace elements are usually required for normal life in small quantities, and the macro - large.Lack of a mineral in the body inhibits the activity of other minerals.
Such cells nutrients like vitamins, are very important to human health because of their lack of leads to disruption of metabolic processes in the body and reduce immunity.This aspect is so important that people who lead an active lifestyle, it is recommended to take additional vitamin complexes.In its pure form in nature vitamins not: each of them exists in complex biological complex that, in fact, helps the body to use them.
protein Protein is necessary for growth and tissue repair.In addition, nutrients are used by the body during the production of hormones, enzymes and antibodies, and smooth implementation of chemical reactions.
We consume proteins from meat, poultry, fish, cereals and legumes, milk, nuts and eggs.They contain amino acids, energy expended is reduced and plastic provide processes in tissues.The increased amount of protein foods recommended for children and pregnant women.
used by the body as fat
main nutrients, fat is used by the human body for maximum absorption of vitamins, energy production and protect against colds.There are three types of fats: saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated.
Dairy products, red meat, coconut oil and certain other foods contain high amounts of saturated fat;peanuts and olives are rich in monounsaturated fats;soy and vegetable oils (sesame, corn, etc.) are champions of polyunsaturated fats.
of nutrients in this category ensures the plasticity of cells, restores the connections required for power generation and update of the whole organism.
involvement of carbohydrates in the body's livelihood
simple and complex carbohydrates (monosaccharides and polysaccharides, respectively) - are rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and so forth. These nutrients are used by the body, in particular, to developvital energy.Involved in the synthesis of cells are in close connection with the fat, allowing them to be interchanged among others.A powerful source of carbohydrate is starch.
Useful for intestinal microflora indigestible fiber plays the role of "whisk", cleans it of toxins.It is a tough plant fibers, which are complex carbohydrates.Foods rich in fiber, improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system, increases resistance to various diseases.
functions of nutrients used by the body
All nutrients used by the body in a special way, although the main function can be divided into three types.
- Construction function restores the structure of cells and tissues.Useful substances involved in the regeneration of the inner and outer bodies.Basically this protein and certain minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, etc .;
- energy functions: nutrients such as fats and carbohydrates, and secondarily - proteins - used by the body for energy to carry out metabolism.They help to maintain a certain body temperature commit muscle movements, etc .;
- Regulatory function, which uses a variety of vitamins and minerals.With them are governed by chemical reactions of metabolism and activity of the internal organs.
to a healthy diet is important to observe the ratio of all nutrients, and not to forget about the right combination of different products.
group Food and energy value
Nutrients in foods contain different amounts, which is why the food in the diet should be varied.
So, fruits are rich in sugars, vitamins and water;sweet desserts are quickly digested and moderate consumption are a good source of energy.Vegetables should be regularly eaten, since the low energy component in them a sufficiently high content of vitamins and minerals which are responsible for metabolism.
Root vegetables and cereals used by the body as a powerful source of energy, with lots of complex carbohydrates.
Meat, fish and eggs - a storehouse of "building blocks" of protein cells and in milk and dairy products high in fat, protein and calcium, and other valuable minerals.
In calculating the energy value of food products employ a unit of heat - kilocalorie (kcal), which corresponds to the thermal energy used to raise the temperature of 1 liter of distilled water from 14,5 ° C to 15 ° C.Virtually all the essential nutrients are involved in generation of thermal energy for biochemical reactions of metabolism of the motor function of muscles and maintaining normal body temperature.This processing (digestion) of proteins, fats and carbohydrates release a certain amount of energy.
nutrients during digestion
nutrient content in the cells is necessary for metabolism.Protein breaks down incessantly and synthesized by the digestive system.But how nutrients are changed during processing?
animal and plant foods has all kinds of elements necessary for the body.But on their own meat, milk or, for example, bread is not absorbed by cells.Only preliminary preparation ensures the absorption of nutrients.Proteins, fats and carbohydrates are broken digestive organs into smaller particles from which they are composed and are then used in metabolic processes.
Proteins consist of amino acids to which they are broken down in the digestive tract.Fats - a complex compound of a fatty acid with glycerol in a ratio of 3: 1 in one molecule.Acids are different, so they make the different composition of fats.
Cellulose, starch and other complex carbohydrates consist of monosaccharides, all known representative of which is glucose.These substances appear as a chain of six carbon atoms joined to "side" of the atoms of oxygen and hydrogen according to the scheme: 1 carbon atom is 2 1 hydrogen and oxygen.As if a water molecule H₂O stuck to it, where there was the name of this group of compounds - carbohydrates.
Thus, if water, vitamins and minerals can be used by the body in its normal form in which are contained in the products, proteins are broken down during digestion initially to amino acids, fats to glycerol and fatty acids, and carbohydrates to monosaccharides.
digestion cycle is a mechanical (grinding, mixing, and so forth.) And chemical food processing (splitting into simpler components).These processes are carried out by enzymes of the digestive juices.Thus, in these bodies work is carried out muscle tissue and the endocrine glands, which are necessary for the functioning of all the same nutrients that we talked about.