Lyrics - this is the best gift derived from the living generations of ancestors.Over the long history of mankind were created true masterpieces: epics and ballads, poems and novels.According to some researchers, any literature begins with the poetry, because the verse - the first thing that towered from everyday speech.
Two types of artistic speech
poetry from prose is distinguished not by a single symptom - especially the rhythm, sound or graphic view ... It is a special system of organization of letters and words.The researchers have set themselves a number of questions: what came before it - poetic or prosaic?What is right and perfect?Why humanity need poetry?These issues are always relevant, and they can not give a definite answer.From his poetic career, not all young geniuses know what disyllabic and ternary meters verse, how to put the emphasis and pauses.But as soon as, with the help of the Muses, begin to appear line, they may notice a pronounced rhythm, and later a favorite way to organize the speech can be traced back to the whole creative path of the writer.
History of Russian poetry
origin of any term usually associated with antiquity, as a reason to all objects and phenomena in the past given certain names.Translated from the Greek word "verse" refers to "a number."Poetic language has a special organization, through which the product is easy to remember.Poetic text is interesting because in it we are divided into certain parts, which are supported by graphics.Within the poetic line, we find the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables, which form a stack.In literary criticism, there are two and three dimensions of three-syllable verse, iambic and trochaic, amphibrach, anapaest and dactyl.
In antiquity, there were about 30 types of feet.Russian versification evolved from the tonic after a syllabic syllabic-tonic.The second system is based on a special principle - each line should drop the accent on the penultimate syllable.Inconsistency phonetics of the Russian language with the other led to a new way of addition, and reforms carried out in this direction V. Tretyakov, M. Lomonosov and A. East.At the core of syllabic-tonic is a repetition of the same foot.
size syllable verse
average length of Russian words is about 3 syllables.In two-syllable poetic dimensions in rhythmic patterns appear unstressed disyllabic foot.Rhythmic organization of the work depends on the length of the line.In chorea stress falls on the second syllable in the iambic - at first.Depending on the number of syllables, they are two-, three-, four-, five-, or shestistopnymi witting.In the works of Russian writers of all sizes meet the verse.
chorea Examples can be found in A. Pushkin's "Winter Evening": "... Storm / mist / Sky / lies ...".To write the famous novel in verse "Eugene Onegin" iambic poet chose chetyrehstopnym: "... My uncle / most / Honest / Rules ...".Often overlooked for the settlement rate stress or, conversely, is found at the junction of words.
three-syllable verse size
addition iambic and chorea in syllabic-tonic dactyl are, and anapaest amphibrach.Poems written in such a way more close to the spoken language.As a rule, the emphasis in them is rarely passed, much more can be found recurrence of stressed syllables.In the words of K. Vishnevsky can reveal that amphibrach and anapaest have spread only in the middle of the nineteenth century, in the heyday of creativity Lermontov.
Dactyl - ternary meters verse, in which the accent falls on the first syllable.Russian poet Nikolai Nekrasov often choose such a rhythm to his works were produced flexible intonation: "Glorious / Fall!zdo / rOvy I / Draenei / air from / steel / strength bo / Drita ".
Amphibrachiy often used to write his masterpieces Symbolist poets such as Alexander Blok, Bryusov, Zinaida Gippius.K. Balmont wrote that without the three-syllable size, life would be monotonous and even a poem dedicated to this issue, "chorea and / Yamba / with their sound / Short / I heard / to purl / streams."
In anapaest stress falls on the last syllable.Among Russian poets this verse trisyllabic size coined A. Sumarokov in his ode "to resist evil-doers '' on the sea / shore / I sit / no simple / Goes municipality / D I look."He soon fell in love with many other masters of the pen, and increasingly appeared works written anapaest.
Determine the size of the verse properly
Iamb, ferrets or amphibrach ... It would seem to reveal the difference between them is not difficult.It is enough to calculate the number of syllables and the right to place the emphasis, and the amount will immediately become known.Today, the analysis of poetry make pupils and students of the Faculty of Philology.This type of analysis is very common and it is important to do it correctly to the teacher praised the work.Sometimes the size of the verse is very difficult, so every beginner philologist should always have a compact table numbering stop, relevant features of iambic, dactyl or amphibrach.
first and main point of analysis - the alignment of stress.It should be borne in mind that the settlement rate for the author uses a technique where instead of the usual highlights another vowel syllable.For example: Let them / in the shower / vnoy Glu / bin / stand / and at / go / Onex.In his famous poem Silentium!F. Tiutchev chose not only the original method of emphasizing the word "go", but pirrihirovannye foot when the emphasis is skipped.
second item you need to calculate what the vowels are distinguished by force to vote.Figures from the stressed syllables are subject to the following verse dimensions:
|Iamb||2, 4, 6, 8 ...|
|Khorey||1, 3, 57 ...|
|Dactyl||1, 4, 7, 10 ...|
|Amphibrachiy||2, 5, 8, 11 ...|
|anapaest||3, 6,9, 12 ...|
With proper placement of accent you can immediately find out which vowels are in a strong position.On the table is not difficult to identify, work is written anapaest, dactyl or solemn pentameter.
Traditions of Russian writers: the size of poems by Pushkin, Lermontov, Blok
often great poets in his work trying to use all the tricks, but it is difficult not to notice that each prefers a certain rhythm.Almost all of the early poems of Pushkin, including his first great poem "Ruslan and Lyudmila" written by two-syllable iambic.Ternary meters verse sounds less vigorously and solemnly, but he found the sympathy of many great poets.Examples dactyl can be found in M. Lermontov.The tradition of writing ternary sizes developing at the junction of 19-20 centuries, and its continued Symbolist writers.Sometimes Blok, Z. Gippius, Anna Akhmatova and others retreated from the syllabic-tonic and wrote their works of so-called "popular" rhythms in the organization on the principle of co-measurement of stressed syllables in lines.Syllable and three-syllable size adapted for the Russian language, so this way of adding the poems are now most in demand, and with time and does not lose its relevance.