Old Russian state was formed in the ninth century, the process of its formation was dictated by folding a business relationship, a further complication of the social structure and serf - this is one of the most important characteristics of the era.
feudalization of ancient society
Thus, economic development beginning of the IX century in Russia went crescendo.Incipient feudal relations, the main value of which has been working on the land and its people.The tribal community while actively splits, one family is now fully able to handle a piece of land is replaced by the neighborhood community.These processes took place in relation to communal land tenure and land rights, it is now owned by a single family.On the rights of joint ownership of people used meadows, forests and pastures.However, more and more there is a tendency to turn these into a personal possession.So begins to form landed private property.In this regard, on top of the social ladder climbing those families where there were a large number of men capable of significantly expand the estates of his family.Families with small amounts of the men were forced to be content with little.Especially in land grabbing leaders succeeded warriors.
increasing complexity of the social structure
This distribution of land resources, and inevitably led to the social stratification among the free population initially.Most wealthy families rather quickly adapted to the new economic and business conditions and could remain free farmers, so there smerdy.The definition of this term can be expressed in the statement that it is the people, the safety of personal and economic independence in the period of rapid development of feudal relations.In the early feudal period these people constituted the majority of the population of ancient society.However, with the further evolution of the feudal system, many of them lose this status, turning into a different kind of dependent population.This filthy peasant - is not a homogenous category of society, among them are well-off, called men of, as well as "warriors" who were eligible and were required to participate in a war (a sine qua non was the need to fully equip themselves for military action).
With the strengthening of the state and intensified its privileged strata.Since the logic of feudalism requires constant improvement of the exploited population, large land owners gradually became weighed down with plenty of freemen.Therefore, filthy peasant - it was a kind of threat to the future well-being of the feudal lord, and the last tried in many ways to turn first to the people dependent on them.And it often happened, aided and climatic conditions.Crop failures, floods, droughts - all these phenomena led to the fact that the once flourishing economy serfs to decline.To feed their families, they were forced to seek the help of the feudal lords, and so fell into bondage to the rich compatriots.For borrowed money, seeds, tools they had to pay.
This can be done in different ways.One part of debtor entered into an agreement with a lender ("row" in ancient transcription) and worked on it some of your time, thus fulfilling the duty.These people were called "ryadovichi."The other part is also paying for the debt ("Coop" in ancient transcription), but could not escape from the lender is not fully reimburse the borrowed property.Such people are called "Zákupy."
Nevertheless, after reckoning once again became a free man.Stinks in Ancient Russia - a certain human condition characterized by its position in the feudal society.This status could be lost forever if the person was unable to fulfill its obligations, then he became a slave, has disfranchised people, only a notch slave.Subsequently, with the historical development, the word has lost its original meaning.In Russia XVI-XIX centuries the serf - a contemptuous designation commoners, used in noble circles of Russian society.