The ABCs of Nursing.

epigraph : And worth so much to suffer, to know so little ... In the words of charity-boy, having reached the end of the alphabet ... "The Pickwick Papers" by Charles

We know that for a full withdrawal need - shampoo and balsam.Today we will speak only of shampoo.The conversation will be long and not much even boring, but after a couple of articles you will be able to understand the composition of shampoos and not reading the advertising slogans.

Historical background

In ancient times to wash the hair in general, and in particular used the egg yolk and sour milk mixed with clay.But the most popular shampoo prototype was probably the ash - the remains of the products of combustion are mixed with water to give a stable highly alkaline foaming mass.In the mid-19th century the industrial production of solid soap, capable of dissolving the fats of animal and vegetable origin.This famous economic soap , which is successfully used not only by our grandmothers, but also some of his contemporaries.

I am categorically against - because the soap by water to form insoluble compounds (with hardness salts), which are deposited on the hair, forming a white plaque and clogging the pores of the scalp (which often causes hardly reversible alopecia).

In the first decade of the 20th century, thanks to the company Schwarzkopf appeared first special funds for washing hair. Shampoos in the usual form were all in the same laboratory Schwarzkopf in 1933 and have been cherished dream of the then fashionable women around the world.There is even a legend according to which it can be argued that one of the factors of the pact does not attack Germany and the USSR was the desire to get our then cosmetic industry (namely the factory freedom, one that still exist in Moscow), the formula of the German miracle shampoos.I do not know how true this is, but in any case, in Russia shampoo first appeared only in the early 60s of the 20th century.It included not only the traditional builders (alkyl), and a softening glycerin.However, despite this, shampoos were so "hard" (pH 7-8), we can compare them except that, with the modern shampoo deep cleaning.In the 70 years of the 20th century the company "Procter & Gamble" was first introduced in the shampoo composition of caring agents (cationic components), which are added to shampoos softness and even some ability to condition hair.

Modern shampoos

Today shampoo from the regular hygiene has become almost "ritual", as it provides gentle care without irritation to the skin, the presence of different caring properties of the hair, often combined with curative effect onskin, and sometimes acts as a kind of aromatherapy, thanks to a pleasant smell.For this reason, the shampoo is one of the most frequently used cosmetic products that meets the highest demands, of which this article, I will consider only the detergents and's Skin properties as discuss the "appearance of the product," his "image" in the advertisingMarket me quite interesting.

In modern cosmetology handbook says that quality modern shampoo should have :

- good cleaning effect (of course, this is his primary goal);give rich foam in water of any hardness (which is very important in our vast country);

- well distributed through the hair (this is important in terms of efficiency, as the court is still "crisis");

- easily washed off (this is also an indication of "efficiency", as the vast majority of people have already put counters on the water, besides rainfall flakes shampoo is unlikely someone will be decorated);

- not to irritate the scalp (incredibly actual property as part of increased allergenicity of modern man);

- provide a conditioning effect that is easy to comb (well, with this I would argue, because in my opinion, is the work of balsams);

- to give the hair shine and healthy appearance (well, of course, especially if there is a consumer because of the concept as "purity");

- have convenient packaging and attractive appearance.

Recently, shampoos began to add colored suspended particles - microspheres addition, creating the effect of bubbles or candy.In addition to the interesting visual effect, they ensure the safety of dietary supplements.However, as it was not attractive in appearance shampoo, reality and the attractiveness of its consumer properties can be assessed only after use.

role of water in the shampoo

amount of water in the shampoo may reach 80%, this water must be, above all, microbiologically clean (to shampoo does not become a "hotbed" of bacteria).It is necessary that there were no hardness salts (iron, calcium, magnesium), which reduce foaming and often comes in the form of sludge is not pleasant.To neutralize these same salts added to the so-called chelates (usually it is Trilon B).

Today it is very fashionable to say that the water in shampoos replaced by infusion or decoction of herbs.I'm not sure that it really is possible since the herbal extracts is a favorable environment not only for the treatment of a variety of dermatitis, but also for the growth of all sorts of micro-organisms, including, there is not the "right".And yet ... We still can only believe what they say in the commercials.

detergent substance

Despite such a huge% water content is still the basis of any shampoo is a detergent substance.Because the primary goal of shampoo to remove dirt, that is - to wash!The basis detergent substances are surfactants in shampoos - surfactants.

surfactant properties : 1. reduce the surface tension between the water and fat particles, facilitating the removal of these particles and dirt;2. forming foam (previously it was generally believed - the more foam, the better the cleaning. Now this statement is true at all);3. To form a suspension of particles of dirt in the foam and prevent the re-settling of the dirt on the hair (this is important, otherwise instead of washing we would torture Sisyphean labor);4. stabilize the rest of the ingredients of shampoo or support them in a dissolved Condition;5. increase the viscosity of shampoo;6. give the hair softness.

detergency provide mostly anionic surfactants , whose molecules contain liposoluble (hydrophobic) portion and a water-soluble (hydrophilic) part.In aqueous solution, the molecules split to form negative ions.The fat-soluble portion of the molecule binds and encapsulates dirt and secretion of sebaceous glands.The water-soluble portion of the molecule is oriented in the direction of the hair, which carries a negative charge (as we know the same charges repel each other), resulting in particles of dirt, connected with surfactants, are torn away hair, then dissolved in water and it is removed.These components are also not infrequently called detergents and surfactants . Detergents saponifier is of natural origin, surfactants - synthetic products.Often used several detergents in a shampoo: sodium lauryl sulfate (most commonly used), salts of alkyl ether sulfates (lauryl sodium, magnesium, at least ammonia), sodium laureth sulfate, magnesium (softer, but expensive) saktisulfosuktsinaty (mild surfactants based on succinic acid)acyl peptides (the condensation product of a protein hydrolyzate and coconut oil).

It is also very widely used cationic surfactants .They have a fairly mild detergent effect, but they are well "attract" and negatively charged hair and perform fixation of dietary supplements on the hair: cationic polymers, quaternized protein hydrolysates, plant polysaccharides.

amphoteric surfactants - in combination with anionic surfactants increase the harmlessness of shampoo formulations, and in combination with cationic enhance the positive effects of silicones and additives's Skin hair and scalp: alkilamidopropil betaines cocoamphoacetate.

Frankly, talk about SAS can be a very long time (in fact there are more non-ionic, kriptoaninovye surfactants and even SOPA, which contribute to creating the most balanced recipes), but I believe that this can be completed as more begin quite difficult toWe chemical subtleties.

aesthetic additives

opacifiers : designed to mask the heterogeneity of the product or its not a beautiful color, which allows practically no change in the formulation, to improve its consumer properties.After addition opacifiers, shampoo becomes more like a lotion or milk than traditional detergents (type of business).Chemically opacifiers are aqueous polymer dispersions.

Dyes : introduced to mask unwanted shades.They must be safe for consumers, lightfastness and decompose at different kinds of effects (heating, freezing, etc.).In most countries, the use of dyes regulated.In total, there are several regulatory systems - the US, European and Japanese.Russian manufacturers adhere to European regulation dyes.And in general - a theme sooo not a simple and rather boring, this - everything.

Perfume : apart from the fact that it is "decorated" the product, making it attractive for the buyer, perfume, including the smell of raw hides.So - think.If the smell is too strong, does not this mean that the materials are not very high quality ... Perfume should be compatible with other shampoo and fillers are not destroyed in time (it is believed that it should be kept at least 3 months).Scheme impart odor shampoo is very difficult and sadly, together with preservatives and dyes may be a major cause of allergic reactions to the shampoo.There is a common European directive, which determines the 26 major allergens, which may be included in the perfume, but for safety reasons should be required to indicate on the label, especially if their number exceeds the limit.

Functional additives

Preservatives: are substances which are added to cosmetic products to stop the growth or kill microorganisms, as cosmetics are an excellent environment for the growth and reproduction of microorganisms.This is very dangerous, because microbes not only degrade the quality of the product, but also produce toxins (poisons of natural origin), which may greatly trigger the development of inflammatory and allergic reactions.So that, from the microbiological purity depends not only consumer product features, but also its efficiency and, I would even say - security.Selection of preservative made individually for each product.It's quite a difficult task because it is necessary to take into account: efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms;preservative compatible with all the ingredients of the shampoo;low toxicity;thermal stability;stability in a wide pH range.

main preservatives used: benzoic acid derivatives, various parabens metilhloroizotiazolinon and methylisothiazolinone, imidazolidinyl urea, propylene glycol, methylparaben, propylparaben, phenoxyethanol, methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben and the like.

thickeners (viscosity regulators): added to shampoos to impart the desired consistency.As the most commonly used thickeners polyvinylpyrrolidone polymers and copolymers of acrylates structured.Also thickeners can perform the role of glyceryl esters of fatty acids and polysaccharides of plant origin.

Solubilizers: are special substances that increase the solubility of poorly soluble ingredients.In most cases, various ethoxylated products.Solubilizers often used to solubilize perfumes.Some supplements before introduction into the shampoo and dissolved in a solubilizer (e.g., jojoba oil, wheat germ oil, fat-soluble vitamins).

pH regulators: correction, so familiar to us pH, add soft acids (citric, lactic, phosphoric) or alkali (sodium hydroxide, mono- or triethanolamine).The pH of the shampoo is incredibly important because it must be such as to ensure the effectiveness of all components included in its composition.Generally, it is believed that it is the pH determines the degree of skin irritation when using shampoo.But dermatologists say this statement is quite controversial, as many researchers emphasize that the skin has a good buffer properties (the ability to fairly hard to control fluctuations in pH values, ie to stabilize the pH).The only thing that can lead to a weakening of this buffer system - poor flushing the shampoo from the hair and skin, but then has to stimulation will work not only and not pH regulators.

conditioning additives

intended for : remove static electricity (one day I met a term - "decrease razletaemosti Hair");smoothing the damaged portions of the cuticle (smoothing porosity);facilitating the ease of combing the hair (both wet and dry);give hair shine and silkiness;Software thermal protection;hydration and nutrition of hair;increase the volume of hair.

mechanism of action of air conditioners: effect actually occurs banal Magnet "+" charged molecules of air conditioners to the "-" the charged surface of the hair.However, in addition to the magnet, in this case, there is more binding molecules and a keratin hair conditioner.This property is called - substantivity due to its conditioning not only fixed on the surface of the hair, but also retain a useful additive.It is believed that the damaged portions of the hair have large negative charge and, therefore, they are fixed by more "+" charged (cationic) particles, i.e. - enhanced cosmetic effect.In fact, this is what many of the brand positioning as a "smart care".

Among the many advantages of the air conditioner, highlights the ability to give hair an incredibly beautiful and high gloss.This is achieved by the fact that the air conditioning "gum up" the hair cuticle, making the surface more smooth (figure varies considerably reflection of hair), thereby increasing the intensity of color and natural shine.

There are, however, not the most pleasant side effects of these wonderful cationic conditioners.Very often shampoos (especially for very damaged and bleached hair) is quite heavier hair, removing much volume.On this when creating shampoo, technologists need to comply with the right balance between cleaning and conditioning components.This is important because an excessive increase in the conditioning additives greatly impairs the washability and cleansing shampoo.Very important is the choice of the air conditioner.For example, the most powerful and efficient air-conditioning is a silicone oil, which is very much accumulates on the hair (the memory of this incredible tenacious and memory in the minds of our customers).Therefore, modern professionals prefer to use light (volatile) silicone.

very important to remember , that no matter how strong and reducing was not shampoo, conditioning the presence of additives does not exclude the need to use a balm .This is especially important for damaged, bleached and frizzy hair, as well as for long hair shaded ends.Remember that damaged areas comprise a large surface with a negative charge, and the action of the cationic component is simply not enough.

Silicones: give hair softness, shine and silkiness, reduce static charge, facilitate combing wet and dry hair, avoiding damaging them (plus they reduce the stickiness of funds for masonry).Silicones have the ability to glue cuticle by performing a recovery function.In addition, they create a film on the surface of the hair, protecting hair from the aggression of the environment and having thermal protection properties.

Types of silicones and their impact on the condition of the hair: 1. dimethicone - silicone oils.