In order to write a text or make it vivid, memorable and expressive, the authors use certain artistic techniques, called traditional paths and figures of speech.These include: a metaphor, epithet, personification, hyperbole, simile, allegory, paraphrase and other figures of speech in which a word or expression used in a figurative sense, to give expression to say more.
Next we learn to distinguish between the various trails and methods for their use.
What adjectives and metaphors
most often found in literary language means of expression are the adjectives and metaphors.
word "epithet" in Greek has the value "Application".That is the explanation for the name is already a matter of fact - a definition that figuratively describes an object or phenomenon.The feature which is expressed epithet so as to join the described object, it complements its emotional and even semantically.
in linguistics and lexicography is not yet widely accepted theory explaining precisely what epithets and metaphors.Usuall
- common language - the ones that have strong, often used in literary language of communication (silver dew, bitter cold, and so on. N.);
- folk poetry - used in folk works (fair maiden, sweet speech, my good fellow, and so on. D.);
- individual author - created by the authors of literary works (futlyarnoy considerations (Chekhov), scratchy eyes (Gorky)).
Metaphors, in contrast to the epithets - is not just a word, but also an expression that is used in a figurative sense.Metaphors are selected on the basis of similarity or, conversely, the contrast of any events or objects.
How and when used metaphor
details what epithets and metaphors, and what are their differences, can be understood to understand that the basic requirement for the use of the latter is their originality, the unusual ability to cause emotional associations and helpsubmit an event or phenomenon.
Here is an example of the metaphorical description of the night sky in the story "Three" Gorky: "Milky Way silver cloth spread out across the sky from end to end - look at him through the branches of the tree was pleasant and sad."
use of templates lost from the frequent use of its originality and emotional richness of metaphors can reduce the quality of the work or uttered speech.
no less dangerous, and may be excessive, the abundance of metaphors.We are in such cases becomes too flowery and ornate, why can be broken and its perception.
How to distinguish between metaphor and adjective
In the works it is sometimes quite difficult to discern exactly what the author uses the trails.To do this, you need more time to understand the comparison, what adjectives and metaphors.
Metaphor is a fine technique, which is based on an analogy, transfer values likeness, similarity "Morning laugh windows.Her eyes - dark agate. "
same epithet - is one of the cases of metaphor, it is easier to say - the definition of art ("Warm milk dusk icy cold stars").
Based on the foregoing, it is already possible to understand what is a metaphor, epithet, personification and find them in this example: "It has been seen as the long needles raced with cheerful blue sky, from the high hazy clouds, drops ..." (Ivan Bunin,"Little Romance").
clear that it was used and metaphors (drops flew long needles), and adjectives (of smoky clouds) and personification (fun blue sky).
Incarnation - singular metaphor, allegory
So what is metaphor, epithet, the personification?This, as you know, means for transmitting the author's attitude to the phenomenon or object, a kind of distinctive colors, allowing to make a written or spoken vivid and memorable.
And from this series can be identified personification - a special trail that has a long history, rooted in folk art.Incarnation - this is the same as the allegory, the transfer of the properties of living beings on the phenomena or objects.
built on the use of impersonation, and one of the closest to folklore genres - a fable.
Unlike tropes such as metaphor, epithet, simile, personification - it is also very economical reception.Applying it is not necessary to describe in detail the subject is sufficient to compare it with something already familiar to trigger the necessary association: "How pitiful ramshackle covered with straw on the ground belly ingrown hatenki rural landless poor, landless peasants!" (JSSokolov, Mikita, "Childhood").
that such a comparison
impossible to imagine a work devoid of comparisons, comparisons of something with something, similes one event to another, allowing precisely, vividly described them and at the same time to convey their attitude towards them.
classics of Russian literature skillfully mastered the art to use epithets, metaphors, similes: "In blue, dotted with the bright stars of the heavens black velvet foliage patterns were similar to someone else's hands outstretched to the sky in an attempt to reach its height" (Maxim Gorky "Troy ").
difficult cases in determining the comparison
Sometimes described above expressive method - the comparison - is quite difficult to distinguish from cases in which a sentence using the word with the unions "as is", "as if" and "if", butI had other goals.
Once again - the epithets, metaphors, comparisons are paths that help to enrich, "paint", said.So, in the sentence "We have seen how he slowly walked toward the forest" there is no comparison, there is a union of connecting parts of a complex sentence.In the same sentence, "We went out into the corridor, where it was dark and cold as a cellar" (Bunin) comparing the apparent (as cold as a cellar).
Ways of expression comparisons
and that the number of metaphor, epithet, simile, personification could finally understand each trail, linger a little more on the comparison.
It is expressed in many ways:
- using rotations with the words "like", "just", "like" and so on. N. ("Her hair curled like pea tendrils");
- comparative adjective or adverb degree ("language of the razor's edge");
- ablative noun ("a nightingale sang in the heart of love");
- and lexical (using the words "like", "similar", and so on. D.).
What is hyperbole
from the use of tropes such as metaphor, epithet, simile, hyperbole is of particular richness, exaggerated point.Many authors readily use this technique: "He was quite impassive, some stone, rusty face."
to hyperbolic techniques can be attributed to the fabulous giants, and Thumbelina, and The Boy Thumb living in a fairy tale.And epics hyperbole - an indispensable attribute: Silushka heroes have always exorbitant, and the enemy - the bitter and countless.
Even in everyday speech can be found hyperbole: "We have not seen each other for a thousand years!" Or "spilled a sea of tears."
metaphor, epithet, simile, hyperbole often used in combination, giving rise to hyperbolic comparisons and metaphors and personifications ("solid wall of rain came down").
ability to use it will make your paths shaped and bright
At the time, even Belinsky argued that to speak well and to speak properly - it's not the same thing.Even irreproachable from the point of view of grammar, it may be hard to understand.
And from the above you probably already understand what a metaphor, epithet, personification, and that know how to use these methods is extremely important.It will help you with that same thoughtful reading of the classics - as it can be regarded as the standard use of all stylistic richness of the Russian language.
get a grasp of Gogol's lines: "Words ... like flowers, such as tender, juicy and bright ...", in which a small set of artistic means the author has managed to clearly convey his impression of the sound of words.And remember, that metaphor, hyperbole epithet - the tools that ottochat your speech and, therefore, need to learn to use them!