Already during the Second World War air supremacy over the battlefield was crucial.Modern large military operations are accompanied by the use of hundreds of aircraft, including unmanned.To counter the threat of air used and missile air defense systems, which differ according to the principle of action, effective radius and degree of mobility.In the 70s a large widely wearable portable air defense systems designed to counter the assault tactical aviation assets, at the present stage presented attack helicopters, attack aircraft and UAVs.
the Russian Army is MANPADS "Igla".This weapon has a high efficiency, confirmed by the experience of combat employment (only foreign forces), it is easy to use, reliable, relatively small size and weight.
MANPADS in the USSR
Development of domestic anti-aircraft missile systems with the ability to run directly from the shell shoulder began in the USSR in advance.In the second half of the 60s, the Soviet Army possessed two types of portable air defense system ("
- the sudden appearance of air defense facilities in areas where the enemy aircraft before the threat is not felt;
- the ability to hit targets at great distances (over 4 km) and a height corresponding to that at which most frequently are "working" on the ground targets attack aircraft ("Skyhawk", "Ghost" or "Skayrayder") - from 1500 to 3000meters;
- a rapid reduction in the deployed position;
- easy application and training of personnel, including foreign;
- relative compactness;
- simplicity in relation to the conditions of storage and transportation.
Despite the high combat qualities were some unpleasant moments for which military experts have criticized MANPADS "Arrow"."Igla" was designed precisely in order to overcome the problems.
not beat in pursuit and met
main drawback of "Arrow" was their ability to hit targets when they proceed on to hide behind an object.Usually an enemy aircraft could be shot down only after the exercise of the bombing or missile volley.Of course, "avenge" the defending forces could in the event that anti-aircraft gunners themselves survived."Arrow" could beat the pursuit, and the army demanded weapons that could hit the attacking planes on a collision course, anticipating potential damages.
In some cases, using the element of surprise, you can succeed, regardless of the design flaw - "catch" the enemy and causing treacherous blow to overflying aircraft went unnoticed.So in 1969, Egyptian troops massed used portable systems "Strela-2" Israeli "Phantoms", running at extremely low altitudes, killing six of them per day.But the enemy is able to learn, so soon the effectiveness of Soviet MANPADS has declined, although the benefits are still remained unquestionable.They have a psychological impact, forcing the enemy pilots are constantly rushing from small to big heights, never feeling safe.Yet it was necessary to seek technical capabilities to meet the beat, rather than after.
government job SP Invincible
Another disadvantage possessed by "Arrows" and which sought to avoid the creators of MANPADS "Igla" was insufficient explosive power of the head of the battle.Not all hitting the target guarantee its destruction and even causing significant damage.Vitality stormtroopers raised, the nozzle into which rushed missiles with a thermal head guidance, made of materials that can withstand severe thermal and baric effects and aircraft often had the opportunity to return to their base, and renovated again posed a threat.It affects the effect of "blurring" the jet blast wave and the flow of damaging elements.With this it was necessary to do something.
In 1971, the Soviet government decided to create a new complex, the ability to fight with the most modern and advanced at the time by means of air attack tactical level, which could have potential adversary.Kolomenskoye engineering bureau became the parent company of the project related work performed by other organizations (CDB Apparatus, Research Institute of instrumentation and Leningrad association LOMO).The main leader of the newly developed quite naturally became Academician SP Invincible.The new weapon was called MANPADS "Igla".Specifications (at target speed, altitude, and the probability of lesions) were, according to a government order, significantly outperformed "Strela-3" (last modification).
Tips Tricks against
main channel for targeting anti-aircraft missiles has traditionally been considered a heat trace left engine of the aircraft.This method of determining the direction of the projectile was relatively simple, but had serious shortcomings.Immediately after the first cases of the effective implementation of anti-air assets were devices designed to mislead the location of thermal systems represent shoot the pyro cartridge, creates a false target.It was therefore decided to equip MANPADS "Igla" two-channel infrared guidance head, equipped with photodetectors.Development of the system, the ability to distinguish a true flight from thermal heat trace "trap", lasted for extra seven years, but was unsuccessful.It proved to be technically difficult, we need only mention the fact that the main photodetector after the transfer of the projectile into the firing position is cooled to very low temperatures, close to absolute zero (-200 ° C).As a result of these efforts, an automatic system, equipped with logic, compares the readings of the two sensors.And if the signal level of the supplemental channel is lower than the core, the goal is defined as a distraction, and the search is carried out for as long as the rocket will not see the true object.
There is another important technical issue that greatly increased the combat effectiveness of MANPADS "Igla".The characteristics of modern attack aircraft survivability depends on where the shell hit, and the nozzle - not the best option, so the guidance algorithm provides an additional option providing for a change of the direction vector of the rocket (complete rotation) on the final trajectory so that the shot went into the fuselage.To carry out this maneuver in the construction of the shell provide additional maneuvering thrusters.
guidance system and fuses
engineers KB every effort to reduce the weight of the portable complex "Igla".MANPADS are conceptually a compact weapon, it is intended for use by a single fighter.Mass blasting substance contained in the fighting compartment missiles, such as the "Booms" (1170 g), but its energy (explosive) power is much higher.In addition, it is a logical solution would use unspent fuel as more lethal force, which is a special device called explosive generator.At its core is a detonator triggered by undermining the basic charge and takes relatively slow mode of combustion of fuel in an instant chemical reaction of oxidation with the release of huge amounts of energy.Fuses two: contact (is activated by direct contact) and induction (magnetic field trapping targets at a distance).Type BLT - high-explosive.
general device and equipment
MANPADS "Igla", as well as other portable systems operational and tactical air defense, is a launch tube, in which cork rocket, with an ergonomic handle.To departing missile could injure the shooter, the starting process is divided into two stages.At first, immediately after activation of the ammunition, missiles are ejected from the barrel by means of a special low-power charge.After a few meters of flight by a laser beam launcher Launches basic (sustainer) solid propellant.At the same time removed the first stage lock prevents accidental explosion of the head.Finally it comes to missile combat the condition even after a few seconds, flying to 250 meters.
Besides the launch tube containing a rocket 9P322 and is an expendable item, a set of MANPADS "Igla" equipped with a trigger (9P519-1) 1L14 with the requestor (it is expensive and complicated, it can be used many times) and electronic tablet 1L15-1(to accelerate the exchange of operational information about the air situation).
For group application will also require a mobile checkpoint.For the verification and control system health, a special set of CPS.What
"Igla-1" inherited from "Strela»
In the second half of the seventies and for the performers and for the customer it became clear that the deadlines Kolomenskoye engineering bureau does not fit.Delay causes a delay in the development of products 9E140 (homing).It turned out to be quite complex, its creation was accompanied by many problems.The missile was almost ready.In order to speed up the flow of the sample by the Soviet Army and to facilitate the further assimilation of new technology, it was decided to form an intermediate.MANPADS "Igla-1" passed the state commission in 1978, came with a single channel GSN by "Arrows".With this new complex features increased power and charge a much better technical characteristics (increased to 5.2 km radius of the application, an opportunity to defeat the purpose of a collision).In 1982, the tests were finally completed a two-channel homing, it added a new portable air defense system of the front-line, dubbed MANPADS "Igla-2."
«Igla" modifications "D", "H" and "C»
Petite complex is difficult to call, the length of the launch tube is 1 m 70 cm - the average height of a man.Particularly serious objections come from the paratroopers began demanding more compact.For them, a special reduced "Igla".MANPADS in the folded position is shorter by 60 cm.
Modification "H" is characterized by high capacity brisant head.The same property is also characteristic of the third version of the complex, which received index "C".But in addition to enhanced high-explosive fragmentation warhead, the missile has a dual fuse (including contactless) and another important quality, because of which the so called device."C" - meaning "folding", in the transport position - in half.
TTX MANPADS "Igla" impressive and completely comply with the requirements of rapid XXI century.The speed of the rocket on the way to the goal - over 2,100 km / h.At a distance of 5200 meters plane or helicopter flying at a speed of up to 1150 km / h at an altitude of 2500 m, it can be struck after with a probability of 63%.
the delivery of fire on a collision course Speed can be greater, up to 1300 km / h.Translate from transport to martial status portable complex can be as little as 13 seconds.
All these dry figures mean tremendous opportunities, which has only a single soldier armed with MANPADS 9K38 "Igla".He can deal with low-flying objects such as attack helicopters and cruise missiles, which are due to flat trajectory pose a greater threat to ground forces.
In addition, the control system is able to distinguish hostile aircraft with built-in recognition system "friend or foe".
special word deserves and ease of use of MANPADS "Igla".Instructions for use in combat does not contain a large number of points, the start can be made from any position, including on board a moving car.Once the operator has found the target, he said, pointing to an object starting tube, push "Start" button.Next, everything happens in a matter of seconds, it remains only to follow the flight of the missile, if it is, of course, there is time.
in the armies of more than four dozen countries is a portable anti-aircraft system of MANPADS "Igla".Its application by Iraqi forces in 1991 caused the loss of several aircraft the Air Force coalition that has demonstrated high efficiency of this type of Russian weapons even in almost complete suppression of air defense and air supremacy attacking side.Over the past more than two decades in different regions of the world there were many armed conflicts and wars.Most have one or the other side used MANPADS "Igla".Photos fighters and government soldiers with typical "pipe", as well as damage and destruction of aircraft illustrate the deadly power of this relatively small defense weapons.
In post-Soviet history of the popularity of the "needle" can compete unless the famous "Kalashnikov".We know about the last major contract for the supply of a large batch of these systems for the Malaysian Armed Forces.The improvement of the system design, which led to an increase of up to six km radius of combat use "needles" modification "Super".These MANPADS, as well as new, as yet secret samples will be fully rearmed the Russian army in the near future.