Degrees and titles

in science and higher education qualification system exists that allows you to establish the scientific hierarchy of the teaching staff - academic degrees and titles.In our country, the award of academic degree lecturers and professors is slightly different from other countries.Typically, academic rank "associate professor" is assigned to the candidates of sciences, and "professor" - Ph.D., although there are exceptions.In other countries, degrees differ quite significantly at the request of the qualification, the title, the award and approval procedures.

In England, the United States and parts of Europe, there are common requirements, and in every scientific field, there are three degrees: Bachelor, Master, PhD.

At the moment in Russia there is a mixed system - in a number of educational institutions has been used for the new system, where there is a bachelor's degree (four years), Masters (6 years), and some high schools retained the old system, manufacturer of graduates with fivefive and a half or

six years of schooling.And instead of the single highest degree of Doctor of Science (philosophy and others) applied moved to a legacy from the Soviet system, where there are two degrees - PhDs, who are awarded the respective dissertation councils and sent for approval to the Supreme Attestation Commission.

Dissertation councils created at universities, research institutes or any other scientific organizations.Protection prepared the master's or doctoral thesis usually takes place openly at the meeting of the Dissertation Council.Now, in order to defend his thesis for the doctor of science, it is necessary to have a PhD.Otherwise, those without this extent, the new legislation does not have the right to defend his thesis for a higher scientific degree.

This proximity branches of science and / or special series received earlier - higher education, scientific degrees and virtually not regulated, except for isolated cases, the stipulated in the legislation.For example, in practice, admits it is acceptable to obtain a higher degree of specialization and / or industry, not close to existing, for example, the candidate of sociological sciences psychologists, mathematicians, economists, doctor of psychological sciences candidate, for example, philosophical, physical and mathematical and sociologicalScience and so on.

Degrees were introduced in the Soviet Union in 1934, which was actually the restoration of pre-existing in the Russian academic degrees.The largest number of PhDs has medical, physical and mathematical and engineering sciences.

order to obtain advanced degrees, we must first write and defend a thesis, and it's quite extensive scientific work, which can contain from 150 to 500 pages of scientific text.Is it possible not to write a thesis on a lot of lists, but could legitimately defend successfully?It is possible, although it is not quite easy.The thesis for the degree of Doctor of Science may be in the form of a scientific report, which must be presented a summary of the research results.Such a report should be supported by a large number of previously published scientific papers, which have great importance for science.In addition, the applicant must be well known to the scientific community for its research and discoveries in the field of activity.

Thus, we examined what constitutes an academic degree, academic rank.