best-known human rights document in the world - the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).Its main essence is to recognize the inherent value of human life and the principle of priority of individual rights over the rights of the state and its sovereignty.In 1945, when at a conference in London was proclaimed the United Nations, made the greatest progress possible in the history and human rights.Paragraph 3 of the first article of the Charter of the United Nations says about one of the primary objectives of the organization - the achievement of international cooperation for the promotion and dissemination of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, regardless of language, religion, sex or race.The Charter became international agreement and binding document for those who signed it.Established in 1945 as the Commission on Human Rights under the auspices of the UN, was to prepare a special Bill of Human Rights, to be guided by him as a universal norm that serves as an example for
Universal Declaration of Human Rights has not been created by this act.Moreover, the Bill did not include many items that protect human rights, and many non-governmental organizations began to make suggestions and additions.In particular, they demanded that each State, which became part of the United Nations, has promised to make sure that people living in these countries were provided with fundamental rights - to life, freedom of conscience, individual freedom from slavery, violence and hunger, and so on.d.The UN Charter included a provision according to which human rights are the concern of all countries.The Preamble of the Charter says that the united nations determined to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and value of human life, in the equal rights of women with men, and small nations - large.Thus began the codification of human rights.
During a special meeting of the governing body of the United Nations - the General Assembly - held in 1948 on the day of December 10, representatives of the eight countries, among which was the Soviet Union, abstained during the vote.But the delegates of this Assembly still has unanimously approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a general description of which is as follows.This document has identified a list of the fundamental rights of every person in the world, regardless of language, sex, religion, color, political or other opinion, national and social origin, property or other status.It states that the government must protect not only their own citizens, but also citizens of other countries - national borders are no barrier to helping others in the protection of their rights.
So, the first part of the Bill of the United Nations on human rights was the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.1948 became the starting point from which to begin to act international normative sample of human rights, consult this document.In Vienna in 1993, the Conference on Human Rights from 171 countries, representing 99 percent of the world population, confirmed the readiness of their governments to continue to follow this standard.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the basis of international law, but by itself it originally was not a legally binding document.However, as a generalized list of agreed principles, it is, of course, it was for the world community a great moral force.In addition, the State using it and citing it as a legal and political context, the Declaration gave added legitimacy to the international and national levels.
Legal force of these principles have acquired only in 1966.Then it was approved covenants on civil, political, cultural and socio-economic rights.They are the second and third part of the Bill of the United Nations on human rights.Countries that have ratified these Covenants, committed to amend its legislation so as to protect human rights.Subsequently, the Universal Declaration of human rights and freedoms contained in it, have been enshrined in other treaties and covenants.Therefore, at this time, its provisions are considered to be mandatory.Thus, it is not ideal to be pursued, and legal document, the principles to be observed by all States.