concept of "determinism" is of Latin origin: "determinatio" stands for "conditioning", "definition".Using this word, as a rule, it is meant the ability to determine other ones started.For example, the axioms present in logical theory, determine the output theorem.Or, for example, investigators are able to determine the causes exiting from them.From this perspective, there is a close relation of conditioning with a variety of justifications.There are different kinds of determinism: the hard, probabilistic, and other definitive.
Many thinkers in one form or another raised the question about the influence of environmental factors on the course of life in society.In this case, determinism in philosophy developed in the transition of social and philosophical thought of the comparison of nature and society in a global sense to study the effects of specific environmental factors (topography, natural resources, climate and other things) on certain phenomena and processes in society (political structure, performanceforces, population growth, etc.).
Reflecting on the value of environmental factors, thinkers came to two logical extremes.One of them - a mechanical geographical determinism.According to him, all human activity is caused only by their natural surroundings.The second extreme - totally cultural determinism.In this case, it was emphasized that the perception of the environment as such, as well as its value to society is determined solely by culture.Thus, the explanation of human activity should be the only cultural studies.However, this was not taken into consideration the fact that cultural opportunities are dependent on natural conditions.
geographical determinism has been widely recognized since the beginning of the second half of the 19th century.The prototype was the Darwinian theory of the doctrine of natural selection.Geographical determinism at that time was quite clearly justified from the point of view of natural science.One of the positive aspects of the theory at the time was the attention to human ecology and distribution of the population in the territory.In this, some authors see the beginnings of modern science - social ecology.
geographical determinism was distributed and popularized through the theory of Mechnikov.Russian thinker in the exposition of the main tenets of his historiosophical concept appealed primarily to the analysis of the question of human freedom, as it was she who, in his opinion, determines the nature of human civilization.
Many of the ideas expressed by Mechnikov, in tune with the ideas of Marx.Last I believed that capital was the birthplace of a moderate, not the tropical belt and the natural division of labor based on the differentiation of the soil and the variety of natural products, not the absolute fertility of the land.At the same time, Marx believed that the natural environment is a mere possibility, provides additional product rather than create it themselves.Thus, according to the conception of Marx, the natural conditions were related to material production and the impact of these conditions on the activity of people seen through the prism of the production process.
historiosophical Returning to the theory of Mechnikov, it should be noted that the great thinker considered a major factor in the river, determined the birth itself and the subsequent development of civilization.Thinker wrote that different cultures have had strong differences due to the isolation from each other.
a comparative analysis of the culture of the ancient East and West, Mechnikov concluded that the West is superior in all respects East.This, according to the thinker, was due to the geographical advantages of the western territories.