Talking about what is induction current, one can not forget the great experiment physics of his time - Michael Faraday.It is partly thanks to his work we can now enjoy the benefits of civilization such as electricity.Then, in the 19th century, the only source of electricity is a chemical element (battery).After the experiments of Faraday world became available generators, which changed the whole future history.
Prior to 1831 physicists were aware of the existence of the electric and magnetic fields.It was believed that the interaction of two or more fixed charges (electrons or ions) creates a certain kind of tension - the electric field.But moving charges are interrelated with magnetic fields.Obviously, at that time there are all preconditions for opening, and they do not have to wait long.
Electromagnetic induction and the induction current was discovered in 1831 almost simultaneously by two scientists practitioners - Faraday and Henry.Surprisingly, similar occurs in all areas of electrical engineering (eg, the "father" radio debate are so far).Given that Faraday was the first to publish results of the experiments and their interpretation of them, it is assumed that he was the discoverer of the phenomenon called "induced current."
One experience will assume the existence of a certain strength (wave of electricity, by definition, a scientist), which created an electric current in a conductor.From the two opposite ends of the metal rod wound several turns.Conclusions on the one hand connected to a galvanometer, and to the wire on the other hand the voltage supply from the battery.At the moment when the battery galvanometer recorded the brief appearance of an electric current.The same thing happened when disconnecting power.It was assumed the appearance of a certain force field producing current.
next experience is better known: to the conclusions of a small coil was supplied from the battery voltage, and its coils current flows.It makes the central span of more coils, the end of which was connected to a galvanometer.When removing and introducing smaller coil instrument registered the appearance of directional motion of charged particles.The phenomenon was called electromagnetic induction, and the motion of the particles is called "induction current."
As it turned out, the cause of its occurrence is a magnetic (electromagnetic field), which cross the line tension wire.The strength of the induced current depends on the frequency of the intersection.And not so fundamentally, whether the conductor crosses the line tension rotates the field itself, or whether the magnetic field is changing (for example, in the first experiment of its varied intensity).
direction of the induced current in the conductor is also not accidental.It is known that around any conductor through which electric current flows, a magnetic field is present with its own lines of tension.Their orientation is dependent on the direction of current.
That conductor is introduced into a magnetic field, it in the presence of closed circuit induced motion of charged particles.Based on the properties of the current conductor appears around its magnetic field.And his line of tension directed in such a way to compensate for a possible change in the main field, which caused the initial generation of the induction current.
In fact, the secondary field is not "allow" the primary change.If you recall the atomic structure of the material objects, including metal wire, it becomes clear the physics of this phenomenon: the core ions attract electrons are lost, trying to recover its initial state of rest.By increasing the intensity of the "knock" electrons attraction force seeks to "repay" the external influence.Accordingly, while reducing the main secondary field due to the motion of particles in the conductor supports it.