such an interesting discipline as sociolinguistics, began to develop rapidly only recently.She is in contact with other branches of philology.For example, language and linguistics society treats subordinates in several disciplines: psycholinguistics and ethnolinguistics.Sociolinguistics focuses on correlations between human speech and the society.
What then can be within any aspect of the subject these relationships?Language and Society nerazyvno connected.We often talk about language and society as if they are interdependent, but in fact it is the attitude of influence.Society, obviously, there may be no tongue, as evidenced, for example, a population of ants, bees, monkey.However, the reverse phenomenon is observed.Language and society due to one another: it is obvious that the former can not exist without the latter.And the origin of speech and linguistic diversity, there are a variety of theories, many of which have stood the test of time and have not found scientific evidence.These are the religious theory or the theory of mezhdometnyh.Other important aspects in the study of problems of "language and society" are the social stratification of language, language policy, bilingualism, the functioning of multilingual societies, modification of language.
Take, for example, functional styles of speech.Selecting a particular way of expressing their thoughts and feelings due to the social status and the situation of communication.Addressing the officials, asking in an institution, we must use the official-business style, in which all design most objectified and depersonalized, which is not allowed emotive language or colloquialisms.If we try to apply to the head in the same style, in which we write, say, text messages girlfriend, yes, or even just "to you", it is unlikely our careers will continue to develop under his leadership.
If we write an application, petition, inquiry or summary in verse, in the best case, laugh at us, and the document is rejected and will not be considered, because "since writing is not accepted."Thus, the situation of communication leads to the selection of specific linguistic resources.In addition, language and society have certain correlation, and by profession, and ethnic, and territorial.If sociolect (eg, jargon or slang prisoners programmers) consider the first language of a particular social or professional group of people, dialectology studying it from the point of view of territorial restrictions.
In Russian, there are northern, southern dialects, dialects of the Urals.In other languages, there are also some dialects, sometimes significantly different from the "literary language".Ethnolinguistics considering language and society in terms of ethnic diversity.It is this area of linguistics deals with the problems of "globalization" and the issues associated with it.For example, the operation of "pidgin language" or Creole dialects encountered in mastering large ethnic groups, the language of the other group in the "simplified" and distorted form.
also problems ethnolinguistics concerns the role of language in society, which is characterized by national heterogeneity.In an era of ever more intensive mixing of ethnic groups, more active creation of inter-ethnic marriages and families come to the fore, and the problem of bilingualism.European countries are trying at the state level to support the linguistic diversity, including, to promote rare and endangered languages.For example, in Poland, we can study and take as Abitur Kashubian language, it publishes books and periodicals.In Germany, support the study of Upper Sorbian language in Spain - Catalan.
Ideally, language policy and their associations (eg the European Union) should be based on objective data linguists that are concerned with the "language and society", that's when it can be unbiased and democratic.Examples of oppression of national identity, cultural identity history knows a lot.This forcible imposition of the Russian language, for example, in Poland in the czarist era, and the German - during the Second World War.Any ban on the use of the mother tongue is the strongest protest from the population that eventually leads to social upheavals, rebellions, overthrow of the government.At the same time the free development of national culture, is inextricably linked with the language, helps to strengthen and stabilize democracy.