This topic is - one of the most serious in the English grammar.Studying a language at an early stage, it is possible for a while to do without this knowledge.But the higher your level, the more you will have the desire to diversify and complicate his speech, making it close to the one owned by a native speaker.At this point, there is a need to study the clauses conditions: their value species, methods of forming and usage examples.In the present article will help.
In English as in Russian, all the offers are divided into simple and complex.And the latter, in turn, can be slozhnosochinёnnymi and slozhnopodchinёnnymi.The first type does not create great difficulties in studying the grammar of a foreign language.But in the case of the second there are some nuances.
slozhnopodchinёnnoe Consider a typical sentence in English:
If (when) the weather is fine, I'll go for a walk - If (when) the weather is good, I'll go for a walk.
In this case, you can easily see two parts:
- I'll go for a walk - main proposal (main clause);
- if (when) the weather is fine - clause conditions (condition clause) or time (time clause).
In the above example the main clause expresses the thought: "What will happen?", And subordinate - "Under what conditions (or any time) it will happen?»
Such proposals expressed indissoluble semantic and grammatical bond principal and subordinatepart.In general, obey the design can express a variety of meanings: mode of action and the extent, location, time, condition, cause, effect, the purpose of comparison, an assignment.But in this article we will focus only on the two types of expressing the situation and conditions of the time.
In a speech similar designs express logical, spatial-temporal and causal relationships.Therefore, advanced English language learners need to understand when to use the clauses of time and condition.
It is significant that in the main part of the proposals slozhnopodchinёnnyh always one and the paranasal may be several.All of them are directly dependent on (logical and grammatical), the main component and joined to it by a variety of conjunctions and expressions.Here are the most commonly used:
- if - if;
- in case - in the case;
- when - when;
- while - yet while;
- as soon as (as long as) - as soon as;
- until - until, before;
- after - after;
- before - before;
- unless (if not) - if you do not.
Note: use the union does not always help determine the type of complex sentence.And it is often necessary to do so, to apply the grammatical rule, which describes later in this article.For accurate confirmation of that in front of you is a proposal to subordinate conditions or time, you must ask a question to the subordinate parts.
Remember, too, that the proposal could begin as soon as the main part and a subordinate.It's hard not to get lost?Just pay attention to what part of the proposal is the union (one or the other from the list provided above).
What is a subordinate of time?
In this type is part of a complex sentence, which is subordinate to the principal, while answering the questions: "When?", "How long?", "How long?" "Since when?", "How long?"etc.
To join the paranasal time to the main part of the unions used: when, after, before, until and others with similar meaning.However, in order to make sure that it is expressed in a time value, and not some other, safer just to ask a question.
What conditions clause?
Such grammatical constructions answer the question: "Under what conditions?".They are quite varied and join unions if, in case, unless, etc.But the word is not always the union acts as a guarantee that the proposal is implemented value terms.Because in many cases the turnover, for example, if, translation is not "if" and "if."Compare:
- I'll come if they invite me - I'll come if they invited me.
- I do not know if they will invite me - I do not know whether they will invite me.
Subordinate conditions in English are found in the proposals, which takes place in the past, present, or future time.In addition, the conditions themselves have put forward a gradation: the real, unreal and improbable.Best it becomes clear examples.
belonging to the first type of clause describes the conditions of a real fact.That is what really happened in the past, present or future.In this form of the verb-predicate in main and subordinate units usually coincide.
This is well illustrated by examples.
- Elapsed time:
If the weather was fine, he went for a walk - If the weather was fine, he went for a walk.
If the weather is fine, he goes for a walk - If the weather is good, he goes (goes) to walk.
- Future Tense:
If the weather is fine, he will go for a walk - If the weather is good, he will go for a walk.
Only in the last example, you will notice that two parts of a complex sentence is not consistent over time (paranasal is in the form of the present, and most importantly - the future).This did not happen by chance, but because of the particular grammatical rules, which are subject to clauses of time and condition.Details will be explained hereinafter.
meantime consider manifestations second and third types of adventitious conditions.They have not been disclosed in the three grammatical time and acquire the meaning of "if, then ...".Moreover, such a hypothetical situation could be relevant to the present day, and to the past.
When the speaker believes that the reality of the condition is quite small, it uses a separate sentence pattern.Drawing an analogy with the Russian language, this is the subjunctive ("if ...").Example:
If the weather was fine, I would go for a walk - If the weather was good, I would go (went) to walk.
Please note that describes the situation comes at a time when people said about her.This is not sorry about yesterday.
to construct grammatically correct statement of the type you need:
- in the subordinate part supply predicate verb in the form of Past Simple;
- in the main part to use would + infinitive form of the verb (but without the particle to).
If compliance with this condition (and performance of actions) is considered as the person speaking is absolutely impossible in the conditions of clause comes into play another type.The impossibility of implementing such a situation due to the fact that the action has already taken place in the past and change the result of the speaker can not.And so to the subordinate of complex conditions of this type are usually expresses regret and sorrow about the circumstances.
If the weather had been fine yesterday, we would not have stayed home.In that case we would have gone for a walk - If yesterday the weather was good, we would not have stayed at home.In this case, we went to take a walk.
But it may be another, within the meaning of the situation is the opposite.Man thinks about what might have happened, but it does not feel regret about this.For example:
If I had overslept, I would have been late - if I slept (a), late (a) to.
Please note that all offer fully applies to past time and expresses the inability to commit certain actions at a time in the past.
formed such grammatical structure as follows:
- in the subordinate part of the predicate verb is put in the form of Past Perfect;
- used in the main part would + Perfect Infinitive.
What time is used in subordinate clauses?
This matter is very serious.Earlier in the article mentioned, it is important to determine the type of the subordinate.And where in this case must be guided not by the unions, and the questions asked.
The fact that there is a certain grammar rule.It is associated with the type of the subordinate and use it present / future tense.
If clauses answers the question: "Under what conditions has committed an act?" Or "At what time (when) it will happen?", They express, respectively, condition or time.In these types of paranasal not use the future tense (verb will).Instead, it is used now.Even when the situation is clearly related to the future and that this time translated into Russian.
- It ispechёt cake when you come - She'll make a cake when you come.
- If I get this job, I'll be happy (a) - If I get this job, I'll be happy.
As you can see, in the latter case resulted example relates to the variety - the type of conditions I subordinate.The other two types of conventional paranasal this rule does not apply, since there are present very different structures for the expression of grammatical meaning.
In many situations slozhnopodchinёnnye proposals allow better express the thoughts of the speaker.Subordinates often joined by special alliances.The main varieties are distinguished subordinate clauses of time and condition.
English imposes certain grammatical rules in matters of use of such structures.To firmly grasp their need to understand once good in theory, and then perform the exercise as much as possible to use an example of a true entrenched in the memory.Subsequently, when it becomes necessary, it will automatically appear in speech.