Military Terms and Definitions

Military terms - a large group of words in the language.The main purpose of this language is a symbol of objects, phenomena and concepts related to the conquest and defense - the central themes in the history and politics of all time.

Appointment military terminology

military terms and definitions are part of the open dynamic system of language, which is subject to certain changes and lives in accordance with the specific laws of development.

Since ancient times, when the military affairs came to the fore, took shape in a separate system, began to expand and thesaurus special naming-term used by military experts in a situation of war and everyday life of the army: a local war, ideology and propaganda, weapons, combat training.With the increasing complexity of military equipment and the development of tactical and strategic opportunities began to appear in the language of the new secured naming: troops, military aviation, the nuclear forces.Obsolete tactically objects are moving into the category of historicism: ballista, cartridge belts, the Table of Ranks, the cavalry, the Red

. There indivisible whole "core" terms-universals survivors century soldiers, Captain, Navy medal victory.

Basically his appointment military terminology serves the interests of society and the state, as it is associated with fluid processes in political life (both external and internal).

Classification of military terms and definitions

In today's world military terms and concepts, as well as the objects they represent, are in a state of dynamic development in the conditions of continuous scientific and technological progress.However, within that defined area, for which it is attached, the term remains stable unit, without changing its value.

among military terminology adopted the following groups:

  • military and political terms (strategic, tactical);
  • military and diplomatic terms (organization);
  • military-technical terms (refer to different kinds of armed forces and combat arms).

development of terminology in Russian language

origins of military terminology in the ancient language can be seen in the text of "Lay" (presumably 1187).Since the "Word" is devoted to military campaigns, are richly represented military terms of its time: the regiment battle, squad, army, Shelom, shield, spear, bow, arrows, and so on. D.

Further, in the XVII century, with the development of languageit began to penetrate the borrowing-and Latinism Germanisms.For example, in the German translation of the book "The Art of War infantry" (publ. In 1647) has a lot of German military terms, there are still: musketeer, soldier, Warrant Officer, Captain and others.

During the militaryinteraction and successful conquests in XI-XVII centuries.Military enriched vocabulary words from Turkic languages ​​quiver tunic, guards and others.

In Peter the Russian language was enriched by the military and naval terminology thanks to the active reform efforts of the first Russian emperor.Thanks to the development of shipbuilding and borrowing of advanced technology from the Dutch and English sea penetrated the terms now current in military affairs: the raid, navy pennant waterway, boat, flight (Holland.), Boat, brig, midshipman (Eng.).

France and Germany, which have been in the army during the XVIII-XIX centuries.the most organized and highly trained, have introduced into our speech such military terms as an army battalion garrison carriage, attack, assault, Captain Marsh, mine, cavalry, Courier, a sapper, a squadron (fr.), Corporal, assault, guardhouse,bandolier camp (it.), and others. Language contacts promoted that of the Italian language "came" Carbonaro, Cavalier, barricade bastion arsenal and others.

In the modern Russian language, most loans brought the English language and Americanoption.Basically it is the military occupation and military equipment, the terms and definitions which have analogues in Russian: helicopter - helicopter sniper - shooter, submarine - submarine aviator - pilot and others.

Lexicography military terms

to put together a significant "military"arsenal of the language, a dictionary of military terms - not an easy task.On the one hand, there is open space of historical memory of language, on the other - a specific urgent need to codify and systematize related including the legal aspect of the military society.

In 2011, a group of authors, edited by D. O. Rogozin was prepared by a large scientific work - unique dictionary-reference book "War and Peace in the terms and definitions."This dictionary of military terms is dedicated to all the previously called contact group of specific terminology.It embodied the articles on special naming under various sections - the theme of war and peace, military, military history, current topical issues of national and international security.For example, in the Dictionary treated martial law - a term that at the hearing, even in peaceful areas:

  • state of war - the strategic deployment of the armed forces in accordance with the requirements of the war (ie. E. Bringing them to the highest degree of combatavailability).

terminosistemy Dictionary reveals the problems of military science and the theory of war, history and classification of armed forces and armaments, as well as economics, geography, pedagogy, history and law relevant to the field.

military terms in the "live" language system

As we know, life does not stand still.In today's world military terms, as well as the objects they represent, they are in a state of dynamic development in the conditions of continuous scientific and technological progress.Of particular difficulty is the systematization of such a huge body of tokens: according LF Parparova, the amount of supplies in modern armed forces reaches about 3 million items.

addition, it is seen that the activation of "reproduction" of specific terms and definitions occurs during militaristic "bursts", namely in times of armed conflict, revolutionary upheavals and conflicts on ethnic and religious grounds: terrorism, separatism, "Bandera" shahids"suicide belt» and so on. d.

Military terminology in speech

sphere of use of military terms is not limited to headquarters and barracks, advanced and rears, - on the pages of popular newspapers and magazines, television programs covered political eventsThe situation in the Russian army, military conflicts, and, of course, the author of a military journalist can not do without a special vocabulary.

Linguist SG Ter-Minasova noticed that in the dictionary of the Russian literary language to describe physical violence presented "reserve" of 98 options, and for the expression of kindness and humility - a total of 11 words and phrases.It is surprising that even in daily use of language is hidden a considerable arsenal of "spears and arrows."

role of metaphor in military terminology

Considering the history of mankind as a continuous "history wars", it should be noted that the military lexicon has penetrated into many areas of life (politics, diplomacy, journalism, private conversations and everyday communication), enveloped in their network of metaphors: the fightfor the purity of the war the pen;facials jokingly called the "heavy artillery" in a woman's arsenal of skin care products, and so on. d.

metaphorical expression are present in the speech of the military itself, and sometimes some of the new models of weapons is called a "poetic emphasis," for example: self-propelled mortar 2S4"Tulip", self-propelled artillery 2S1 "Carnation", towed gun 2A36 "Hyacinth-B" heavy flamethrower system TOS-1 "Buratino", intercontinental strategic complex "Topol-M" and so on. d.

transfer values ​​in the militarythe terminology is often based on associative impression or experience of man.Therefore, to express the notion of attracting words expressing ordinary name or concept: booby trap;"Tracks" of the tank;"Spit death" (a machine gun during the First World War);tank tub (tank in World War I), King-tank, "Grach" (Su-25).

translation problem of military terms

When translating foreign texts containing military terms and definitions often have problems because of language discrepancies caused by:

  • lack of analogy between the concept and the reality of (Army - it's ground forces, notArmy);
  • inappropriate or incomplete coincidence terms (Military Academy - is a military school, and not military academy);
  • disparities in ranks of the armed forces of various countries;
  • differences in unit organizational structure (troop in the British Army - platoon, and the US Army - intelligence company);
  • brief "period of life" of certain terms (for example, significantly different dictionaries of terms of the First and Second World Wars, although there was less than 30 years);
  • significant number of abbreviations and acronyms, hard indecipherable;
  • abundance of slang (My feet are dry - fly over land; No joy - the target is not detected).