Final certification of graduates in the form of a single state exam is often subjected to criticism in connection with the mechanicalness and surface, which do not allow to see the whole range of knowledge and skills of students on the course.Among the teachers there was even the term "coaching on the exam," which characterizes the first automatic test execution.Therefore, gradually work in the context of the exam varies expand creative tasks, requires knowledge and skills at the same time.These include historical portraits.
These tasks are not new methods of teaching history, and yet the graduates of 2013, completing them faced difficulties, indicating that the lack of attention to this form of work on the part of teachers.There
algorithm by which constitute the historical portraits.Competent answer is sure to be a structured and logical.Therefore, in the classroom, studying certain material, it is advisable to make such characteristics is first collective, then give the job to the house, and in the end, to enter into independent work.
So, historical portraits are described as follows.The first is characterized by an objective landmark atmosphere in which he was born and brought up the hero, with specific dates, whether in life or business.Second, indicate personality traits play a positive or negative role in his fate.The next step presents itself an action hero.This part is important to follow the chronology, and not to throw all in a heap.In addition, the need to conclude the results of the primary activities of the facility descriptions.Finally, you can earn extra point, giving its assessment of the individual in history.
Such a scheme is not something complicated or unsupportable for students in upper secondary school.In addition, this year's graduates were offered the choice to describe one of the three leaders of different eras that made it easier.
Here are some examples of drawing up these specifications.Historical Portrait of Alexander 1 well to start with contradictions Pavlov era destroys the base of enlightened absolutism of Catherine II.In addition, it is necessary to describe the state of Russia in the early 19th century as compared to Western Europe and the objectives of its development.Be sure to fix the reign: 1801-1825, objectives of: reforming the political system in Russia, its transformation into a limited monarchy, talent constitution and the abolition of serfdom stifled the development of the country.It is important to indicate two periods of internal policy: to the World War II and after, with the dates of all significant reforms (public administration reform, the activities of Speransky, education reform, the peasant question, Arakcheyev).Describe the success of foreign policy activity in the east (the struggle with Turkey and Iran) and in the west (the defeat of Napoleonic France, the Congress of Vienna, joining territories).In general, conflicting results characterized as resistance to reform on the part of the upper society did not allow Alexander to carry out the tasks.
forward to another era.Historical Portrait of Alexander Nevsky is necessary to start with the topic of feudal fragmentation, indicate the years of the reign of Nevsky Cathedral in Novgorod (1236-1259 with breaks), and then at the Vladimir throne (1252-1263).If the exact date is not known, indicate the century.West or the East - the historical choice facing Russian land at that time.In the face of Alexander the selection has been made toward the east.Battle of the Neva (1240) and the Battle on the Ice (1242) delivered the Russian principality of capture by the Crusaders and stick a catholic faith.Thus, the preservation of state and culture in Russia.It is this achievement was highly appreciated by the Russian Orthodox Church, which was built by the Russian prince to the rank of saints.Next formulated relevant to the individual and his activities.
So, in these examples we see that historical portraits - this form of work that tests not only factual knowledge of students, but also their ability to analyze, compare, highlight the main draw conclusions.