Tula Kremlin - this is one of the oldest outposts built on Russian soil.For a long time he was covering a shield to Moscow from the raids of Crimean khans.The first mention in chronicles dating back to the year 1146, but since Tula has never been an independent principality, the exact date of its foundation is unknown.
History Tula Kremlin began in the XVI century, due to sharply exacerbate the situation in the southern regions of the country.In 1507 the Russian Tsar Vasily III issued a decree on the construction of a fortress on Muravsky Shliakh on which conducted raids of Crimean Tatars.Tula Kremlin, it was decided to build on the south bank of the river Upa.This suggests that Russia has decided to conduct an active policy for the protection of their own territories.For two years Tula Kremlin was built in a tree.In 1514, construction began on the stone walls.Even after six years, in 1520, the castle was completed.For ten years, until the fortress in Kolomna and Zaraysk, a shield was Kremlin, Tula at this time it was not only a stronghold, but the last obstacle from nomad raids to Moscow.
XVI century was a particularly busy one for Tula.In the forties, the Tatars have been made 14 attacks on the southern outpost of Moscow.In June 1552 the entire Crimean Horde, with the support of Turkey began to march on Moscow.The army, led by Devlet Giray, appeared under the walls of Tula on 21 June.Defenders of the city stood firm until the arrival of army units.The Tatars were defeated and put to flight.Three years later, they also had another attempt to raid on Tula Kremlin, but Russian weapons again showed its strength.
Kremlin is shaped right quadrangle construction was achieved at maximal symmetry.The walls were built on a solid foundation, which in turn rests on oak stilts.Their height reaches 10.26 m and a width of up to 3.2 meters.
around the Kremlin was established poluval of white stone, the walls are built of red brick, crowned with battlements in the shape of a swallow's tail.Every second or third prong is equipped with loopholes.Battle progress harbored defenders not only from enemy fire, but also from the weather by means of a gable roof.The fortress had loopholes and to conduct plantar battlefield and shooting could lead not only guns but also artillery pieces.
in the Kremlin are two cathedrals, each of them the absolute opposite of the other.For example Assumption Cathedral is decorated with various patterns, it is still holding services.While Epiphany Cathedral - the standard geometric rigor and simplicity.Now it is a museum of unique weapons exhibits.Collect it started during the reign of Peter I. At the end of the XVIII century Empress Catherine II issued a decree on the establishment of the Chamber of rare and exemplary weapons.The collection is maintained and in our time.It consists of both musket time of Peter and of the modern small arms.Tourists should also visit the nearby Museum of the entrance of Tula samovars or stroll along the ramparts to Nikita tower.