The depth of the Mariana Trench

for all human unexplored always of great interest.And deep sea keep so many secrets that a generation of scientists will be provided with work.

But there are points on the map that are not covered by a veil of secrecy, and are the main theme of the mystical stories.

One of such places - the Mariana Trench and Trench - is a typical element of relief of the continental-oceanic transitional zones.In such places, there is a decrease of the ocean floor, in the form of a long valley is narrow.Deepest trenches are Pacific.

Mariana Islands given the name of one of the deep ocean basins length of two and a half thousand kilometers.It differs a flat bottom, which is equal to the width of 1-5 kilometers, steep V-shaped.The maximum depth of the Mariana Trench is about 11 kilometers.It is the deepest point of all oceans.It is rather a chasm or abyss than depression.

What else is known about this mysterious man place?Research Mariana Trench began in the 19th century, when the ship "Challenger" with members of the English expedition set sail on board to carry out measurements of the depths of the Pacific.In the area of ​​the trough is the most ancient of the sea bottoms in the world.This explains the depth of the Mariana Trench.In 1960, the bathyscaphe "Trieste" to the two researchers on board plunged into the deepest part of the basin - the abyss Challenger.This dive was a journey into the secret depths of the sea, as the relief gutter was completely understood.The risk was great.His contribution to the study of this question has made a Hollywood film director James Cameron, who, being the third man in the world, conquering the Mariana Trench, conducted research, and got a lot of new information invaluable.

inhabitants of the Mariana Trench require a separate discussion.Even in 1958, an expedition of Soviet scientists proved the existence of life at a depth of seven thousand meters.Before that, it was believed that it exists no more six thousand.By the way, the expedition found that the maximum depth of the Mariana Trench is eleven thousand twenty-two meters.As living organisms, that their study is conducted underwater vehicles, made from materials other than high strength, at the depth they are automatically piloted.Cameras, which have been equipped with these devices, fixed organisms (whole colonies) below seven thousand meters.In what the living conditions of the five-foot worms, unidentified creatures in the two-meter-long soft-bodied, mutated octopus, sea stars?In total darkness, no algae at low temperatures and monstrous hydrostatic pressure.In such circumstances, all living organisms are distinguished really awesome views, but they mostly feed on bacteria.

Mariana Trench is located in a place where he tectonic fault, where the Pacific plate bent and partially sank beneath the Philippine.But as much pressure one tectonic plate to the other does not exist, the scientists were convinced that earthquakes in this area impossible.But today, the confidence significantly reduced.This is the fault of two earthquakes that occurred on the island of Sumatra and in Japan in 2004 and 2011.

The depth of the Mariana Trench stores so inexplicable that scientists oceanographers will be for many years to try to lift the veil of secrecy over this part of the Pacific Ocean.This once again confirmed the director from Hollywood, who recently became a researcher.Going down to a depth of eleven kilometers, he filmed a lot of interesting.