now - after a few hundred years - and in the next decade at least the past Russia and Poland will strongly affect our relationship.History of Poland is imbued with the Polish-Russian disputes, wars, ideological differences.Three sections of the Commonwealth turned 123 years of enslavement.
and Polish history is inseparably linked with the struggle for independence.
After the fall of the anti-Russian uprising in January 1862 came further process of Russification of the Polish lands and unification of the Kingdom of Poland.Polish institutions ceased to exist, subject to forced administration of St. Petersburg.Decree 1865 as an administrative introduced the Russian language, three years later was created a separate budget, the central government, and the country is divided into 10 provinces.In 1876, Russian-style rebuilt courts, and ten years later liquidated Polish Bank.The official language in the institutions and the courts became Russian, and most officials took place in Russia.Therefore, the history of Poland and at that stage was the history of enslavement and the fight for the preservation of national identity.
After the death of the governor Theodore (Theodore) Berg kingdom, which became known as "Privislinsky edge", began to lead the governors-general, with special rights in the field of security.Moreover, Poland did not apply the liberal reforms conducted in the empire, everything is held in a police state system, censorship and martial law (since 1861)
still retains a measure.The Catholic Church, which stood up for the rebels, too, was pursued: the monasteries were closed, those who survived were selected property, bishops depend on the college in St. Petersburg (despite the objections of the Pope), and lived under the prohibition of contacts with the Vatican.
Polish lands included in the Empire, the Polish situation was the worst.The most difficult for the population was forced cultural assimilation and the suppression of ethnic identity.Poland as a part of Russia as a discriminated national autonomy - the majority of Poles were deported to the eastern territories, and the rest under the weight of high taxes can not buy land, establish the enterprise.Naturally, this caused a latent discontent of the population, which develops with time into open protests.If, before the reign of Alexander II history of Poland underwent a difficult period of liquidation of the Polish state, the latest government to focus on issues of culture and language.Again and again we formed the new nationalist currents, resulting in the Russification of the Russians reinforced at every turn.In the territories beyond the Bug River sought to erase any manifestation of Polishness - both at school and in the administration - when it was finally banned the Polish language for public use.In the Kingdom it was not possible, but here limits the development of Polish culture and favored Russian.
In the mid 60s of the 19th century Russian language became the language of instruction in secondary schools.Home School in 1869 was turned into a royal university.In 1872, as a result of the reform of the Minister of Education Dmitry Tolstoy completely eliminated the specificity of the Polish school.
Russia and Poland.The history of these countries ever been in a collision.It is with Russia Poland fought a war of 1920.In Poland, it is believed that the next section - the occupation of the country - came in 1939, when the Soviet troops on September 17 entered the territory of Poland (recall that on September 1 Hitler's troops occupied the country).However, the history of Poland sore spots still remembers.And until we can openly and honestly discuss all the complex historical vicissitudes, is unlikely to be a real dialogue.After all, the struggle against Russification - first from the 19th century and then the entire Russian dominance in the Soviet era - is still alive in the Poles.And although in recent years there is a tendency of convergence, nevertheless, to true friendship is still far away.