Gothic - era in the development of medieval European art, which began in 1140 in the Ile-de-France (Paris and the area surrounding it) and continue until about 1500-1550 years, giving way to the Renaissance.This is most clearly manifested in the gothic style architecture and stained glass windows, but also in sculpture, painting, murals, illuminated manuscripts.
One of the most outstanding examples of the style - Notre Dame de Paris (Notre-Dame de Paris).
In fact, the architecture of the period was the result of an engineering problem.How to reach through a wide stone surface at high altitude?Although most of the churches early Middle Ages had ceilings covered with wood, many buildings were semi-cylindrical stone arches (semicircular arch) or rib groin.Walls were erected necessarily very thick, can withstand external invasion, with small windows - it's the features that characterized the Romanesque style.
Gothic originated primarily in the architecture, with the construction in 1130 in the Abbey Church of St. Denis.
Thanks to innovative experiments architects of the 1110's, turned out to decompose the wall (on the components), applying more "mobile" elements in the organization of space - for example, pointed arches, which had, in contrast to the round lower side supports that allow themeasily adapted to the windows of different width and height.In addition, the system was developed for the stone ribs of weight distribution on the set of columns and bearing down to earth, stone arches respectively, can be made lighter and thinner.
housed in outdoor walls of the large windows.In 1170's, which is very important, flying buttresses began to appear (outer retaining arch, type buttresses), strongly associated with Gothic architecture.Flying buttresses system has two key components: a massive vertical block masonry (pillar) on the outside of the building and an arched segmental or sector bridges the gap between the support and the wall.
Gothic style to classify according to the three main periods: early (or French Gothic), mature (or high gothic), and later, the so-called "flaming" Gothic.
The name "Gothic" (from the Italian word "Gothic" - unusual, barbarous) was given the culture in the Renaissance architect and theorist of art by Giorgio Vasari.Thus, he expressed contempt style, comparing it with the ancient art.Of course, in today's days of biased assessment of Vasari had not shared by anyone, but the name of the well established, gradually naturalized, losing a negative overtone.In the Renaissance, Gothic art was called more as a "German style" - definition, also owned by Vasari.
should be recognized that due to the product of Goethe on the German architecture, it is indeed perceived as a national art, as well as in some other countries.This is indicative of the revaluation and recognition of medieval art.
With growing confidence architects in northern France, and soon throughout Europe, competing in the race for the conquest of the kind of height.Body of each of the new cathedral, as a rule, should be higher than a few meters than its predecessor.
height of the interior of the Cathedral of subordinate main Christian idea - the hope for a happy departure from the earthly world to the heavenly world.
Gothic style, in principle, determined by the architecture.Sculpture heavily tied to it, at least in the early stages.On the facades of the major churches, especially around the portals continue to make great cymbals, but around them arranged rows of sculptures.
outstanding experience amplified architecture and rich stained glass windows, sometimes covering the entire height of the building.Decorated with scenes from the Bible, biographies of saints, figures of prophets and other religious characters, stained-glass windows were the main motive in the perception of the cathedral as a compendium of the Christian faith.During the thirteenth century, a mandatory feature of the Cathedral is the most monumental window- "Rose", on which was depicted in the center of God, Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary surrounded by Cosmos.
At the end of the 14th century, in anticipation of the Renaissance, Gothic acquired some secular features.One of the greatest representatives of this period is Simone Martini.
Over the 400-year period of the Gothic penetrated all forms of art.Shamrocks, arches and other architectural ornaments appeared on the metalwork, liturgical vessels, the tombs, the rich spiritual garments, precious diptychs, as well as secular accessories - furniture, dishes.