In the XV century in Western Europe, where for several centuries in the culture, art and philosophy reigned medieval scholasticism, religious theocentrism, ieaspiration to God, the denial of earthly life, which was considered a prelude to heavenly life, there is a surprising phenomenon, later called the Renaissance, that is the Renaissance.Economic preconditions for this phenomenon was the emergence and development of capitalist relations, but the Renaissance - is, first of all, a reassessment of values and a new view of man and the surrounding earthly world.
man becomes the center, the measure of all things on earth.This led to a very significant feature of the culture and arts of the Renaissance - a manifestation of the development of individualism and creative outlook and social life.Dominant force in the philosophical, aesthetic theory becomes humanism, defending the value of human personality.At the same time the benefit of man - the purpose of social and cultural development of society.
The basis of the new humanistic Renaissance revived thinking went at the time the interest in the ancient culture, which depicts a man as a universal medium of deep personality traits, bright personality.However, this interpretation of the person is not just accepted, it reinvents.The inner world of man and his physical structure became a unique expression of the universal, infinite essence, its size equal to the universe that contains the potential for self-development and self-improvement.
Renaissance in Italy
Aesthetics and Culture of the Renaissance emerged in Italy.This era can be divided into four periods: Protorenessans that begins with the XIII century and is considered the time of the birth of new thinking;XV century, a period of the early Renaissance;at the end of XV - beginning of XVI centuries falls heyday, called "High Renaissance";Finally, the era of the late Renaissance and the crisis of his ideas comes at the end of the XVI century.
For Protorenessansa characteristic has a very close relationship with the Middle Ages, Gothic, Romanesque traditions in architecture and painting.However, at this time originate the main ideas of the future great time.The first harbinger of reforms in the fine arts creativity becomes famous Italian Giotto (Giotto di Bondone).His paintings are more realistic in the picture, the figures of people and the background behind them bulky and attractive.At the same time developing the Italian literature.Create your poetic masterpieces of Dante and Petrarch.By the early Renaissance period is work of the great Italian artist Sandro Botticelli, whose paintings reflect the touching and profound admiration for the beauty of the female earth, they are imbued with deep humanism and philanthropy.
By the middle of the XV century the Renaissance in Italy and throughout Europe is fully established.In painting and literature was the dominant image of the earthly world, "full-blooded", deep feelings and loving life in all its manifestations living earthly man.Life and real world objects drawn in great detail.Art has become realistic, secular and life-affirming.The development of art and architecture are closely been associated with the rapid development of natural science and mechanics.
highest flowering of the Renaissance accounts at the end of XV - beginning of XVI centuries.This period is connected with the activities of such great artists like Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Giorgione, Titian and others. High Renaissance - is the peak flowering of ideas of humanism, which translated into an amazing in its aesthetic impact synthesis of form, color and content, reflected in the paintings of artists.Creative work of the great masters differs deeply psychological, realistic, subtle and spiritual insight into the inner world of man.During this period, artists use new principles of painting, which then had a significant impact on European art.
High Renaissance gave way to the era of crisis.Further development of capitalism has led to the disappointment caused by the mismatch of humanism with the surrounding reality.This period is associated with the occurrence of utopias - works which are based on the fantastic ideas about the ideal society.The first philosophers were utopians Englishman Thomas More and Tommaso Campanella Italian.In the painting of the late Renaissance period associated with the advent of Mannerism.Mannerist artists (Veronese, Tintoretto and others.) Deliberately embellish reality, violating the principles of harmony and balance.
Renaissance became the basis in the development and establishment of European art.During this period, we developed the basic principles of artistic creation, which appeared in the further development of art and literature through the years and centuries.