Mongol-Tatar yoke.

XIII century for the people of Russia was a period of trial, the constant struggle for survival.It was at this time a heavy burden fell on the shoulders of the people of the Mongol-Tatar yoke.It was in the XIII century, Alexander Nevsky showed the power of the west Russian weapons.The result of the heroic confrontation had a significant impact on the fate of the entire nation.The changes affected all spheres of life: economic, social, religious.Russia became a buffer, which is divided on the wave of nomads.That she did not let the huge hordes of Mongol-Tatars on the expanse of Europe.

first campaign Batu Khan began in 1236.After the defeat of the Volga Bulgaria his troops rushed to Ryazan.While in Russia he reigned disunity among the princes, and to fight with the nomads had Ryazanians alone.As a result, the city was completely destroyed and the inhabitants were either killed or taken away into slavery, only a small part of them escaped, hiding in the woods.The same fate befell Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal and Torzhok.Batu Khan rushed to Novgorod, but bloodless and burdened prey army was already unfit for action.As a result, the Mongols turned back.

But in 1239, the Horde began a new campaign, in which were captured and plundered Kiev, Murom, Gorokhovets, after which the nomads flocked first to the Galicia-Volyn Rus, and then to Europe.But the Mongols had to continue a campaign in bloodless battles with the Russian army.

If Europe Batu walked foray, that Russia was lined with a heavy tribute, and started the Mongol-Tatar yoke.It is a long time to stop the development of Russia.It caused heavy damage to agriculture and culture.Consequences of the Mongol-Tatar yoke for Russia have been very heavy.During the two campaigns were burned and looted about 50 cities, 14 of them have been completely wiped out and has not been revived, 15 cities from developing trade and craft centers have become a small village.

Mongol-Tatar yoke completely redraw the map of Russia.Significantly reduce the role of Kiev, which remained after the looting of not more than two hundred houses.Best Masters Tatars deportation to slave labor, destroying the sophisticated craft.A heavy burden rests on the shoulders of the Russian people a tribute appointed by the rulers of the Horde.Russian princes had to go to the Horde to obtain the right to rule, which increased fragmentation principalities.

Mongol-Tatar yoke had its peculiarities.Chief among them - is that Russia has not been included in the Horde lands.This is primarily due to the fact that the Russian forests were unsuitable for nomads.The second feature - tolerance Tatars.And the church is practically not subject to any taxes in response to the priests kept the nomads and the Russian princes called for tolerance.

overthrow of the Mongol-Tatar yoke was already in the XV century, after the Russian opposition and the Horde forces in the mouth of the river Ugra.Neither party has not decided on active combat operations, but Khan Akhmat had to go with his army, but without achieving the restoration of power over Russia.