political thought of the Middle Ages is part of medieval philosophy.No doubt, it was the Greco-Roman and biblical submission provided much of the intellectual material received in the context of the reinterpretation of medieval ways of thinking, are radically different from those that prevailed in ancient Greece, ancient Rome and the Hebrew world.Political thought of the ancient world of late antiquity period was chosen starting point because it marked the public recognition and then the dominance of Christianity, which provided the fundamental conditions for the development of medieval political ideas.
In the early Middle Ages in the West, people lived in a world where the Christian faith was considered self-evident.It was a general assumption of a structured life.Politics and the attitude of the Catholic Church to the political laws are no exception.The rulers considered it their duty to support the welfare of the Church.Pope, bishops, prelates defended the integrity of the political laws.We can say
political thought of the Middle Ages is based on ideas that have been formed between the reign of Emperor Constantine (306-37 years) and the beginning of the eighth century, when the West saw the coming to power of the Carolingian.These ideas have coexisted and interacted with purely medieval ways of thinking.
And if in the early Middle Ages the importance of this heritage was quite minor, then, starting from the end of the eleventh century, there was a re-opening of the many sources of political ideas of the ancient world - such as a set of Roman civil law "Codification of Justinian» (Corpus iuris civilis), workAristotle available in Latin translations.In the twelfth century, it has flourished education in Paris, Bologna, Oxford and elsewhere.By the beginning of the thirteenth century, formed a corporation called university where philosophy has been studied within the boundaries of the art, as well as in the faculties of theology.Research questions were very important laws, and developed the idea of influence on political views.
medieval political doctrine argued that the main objective - is to promote Christian doctrine and, ultimately, to achieve eternal life.Church among thinkers, philosophers and theologians have an important role to Thomas Aquinas.He more than any other philosopher, even St. Augustine, laid the foundation for the invincible teachings of the Catholic Church on politics.
Early Christian (political) philosophy Augustine was heavily influenced by the ideas of Plato.Christian thought some "softening" the stoicism and the theory of justice of the ancient world.In the most famous of his works - "The City of God" - human history Augustine was presented as a conflict between the two communities, "a hail of Earth" and "City of God", the sinful and the divine, which is destined to end in victory for the latter.
political doctrine of Thomas Aquinas deals with the types of laws.According to him, there are four laws: the law of the Cosmic God, the law of God according to the Scriptures, the natural laws or universal rules of conduct;Human law, or special rules that apply to specific circumstances.According to the ideas of Thomas Aquinas, the purpose of human existence - is the union and eternal communion with God.
Yet the political thought of the Middle Ages and has been associated with a more important issue.How to clearly define the nature of the object?A broad approach to the definition of this issue is dictated by the peculiarities of medieval political thought and sources that help historians to restore it.The study of political ideas, of course, should include any mention of the state, although the term "state" in the Middle Ages could have other connotations, which are significantly different from modern views.It might not necessarily be used to describe aspects of politically organized society, in any case, before the twelfth century, although there are some scientists to determine if the idea of the state in the early periods, such as in the Carolingian era.
complexity of research lies in the nature of the sources themselves.Political thought of the Middle Ages can not be fully identified only by the work of a number of thinkers.Most medieval writers, when considered in the context of the problem were, first of all, theologians, philosophers, jurists, and political ideas did not show too zealous attention.But in any case, the intellectual orientation of these thinkers should be taken into account when interpreting the question - as well as the work of journalists involved in the disputes between the papacy and the secular rulers.Particular attention should be given to legal sources - because of the Church's role in society in the early Middle Ages, when the ecclesiological issues have taken political importance.
also need to consider the source and another range, reflecting the order of coronations of monarchs, the sequence of historical events - all those materials that are not only directly but also indirectly related to political issues and help to explain the political relations.