Immanuel Kant - the great German philosopher, 18th - 19th centuries, the founder of German classical philosophy.Without the doctrine of Kant would have been unthinkable development of world philosophy since the 18th century and beyond - right up to the present day.
fundamental provisions philosophy of Kant stated in his two fundamental theories: epistemology (theory of knowledge) and ethics (moral theory).
theory of knowledge - the main provisions
main work, which focused founding philosophy of Kant - "Critique of Pure Reason."
Purpose - analysis of theoretical concepts, which later would be called subjective dialectics.It philosopher explores the phenomenon of mind.
Epistemology Kant says that human activity in its basic form is represented by knowledge.This fundamental phenomenon is associated with the ability of the individual to identify himself with all of humanity.The knowledge a person acquires the potency of its existence, endowed with limitless possibilities.
formative mastering the human experience, and therefore also linked with cognition.
Kant introduces the concept of the object and subject of cognition.They enter into a relationship of dialectical opposites, which is a contradiction of cognition.The source and the lead in the beginning of the dialectical pair - that the subject of knowledge.It introduces an object in relation of subordination and is able to translate the essence of the object's energy directly into his.
What structures have knowledge of the subject?
In answering this question, the theory of knowledge Kant distinguishes two levels: the psychological and doopytny.
- Under the psychological level means the following.The sense organs exist in the ever-changing as, according to which there are their tasks in the form of curiosity, sensitivity, and so on. D.
- Under doopytnym level (transcendental, congenital) refers to the existence of the primary instincts, makes you feel, for example, time and space,his home, etc.
most important questions of knowledge:
- what are the steps or stages;
- what are the criteria.
Kant identifies three stages of learning:
Practical activities for the transformation of the mind is the criterion of knowledge.Homo sapiens creates new ideal objects, concepts and ideas.Special Criterial different ideas to develop and lead the whole of mankind, for example, the idea of God.
Outside ideas knowledge is impossible, it simply does not exist.
Thus, Kant's theory of knowledge for the first time in the world of philosophy raises the question of what are the boundaries of knowledge.Despite
on the boundary of epistemology, the reality, according to Kant, it is possible to know in the fullness of mind.This is true for objects created by man himself, that is,for the world of ideas.The most fundamental, great ideas embody the mind of humanity, they - are the source and the basis of faith (for example, the idea of God).
Kant's theory of knowledge for such objects introduces the concept of "things for us," contrasting it with "things in themselves."Recent belong to the world that lies beyond the ideas.He protivolozhen person is - the very embodiment of the unknown.Kant argues that between the "thing in itself" and "thing for us," there can be no transition.They initially and permanently isolated from each other.
moral theory - the basic provisions
ancient philosophical discipline - ethics - studies morality and morality.It can be argued that the ethical teachings of Kant's philosophy of modern times represents the pinnacle of critical ethics.
theoretical philosophy, as is well known, preoccupied with questions about the existence of truth and scientific knowledge.
In turn, practical philosophy, to which should be classified as the teaching of Kant's ethics, considers the problem of the relationship between moral law and real freedom.
elucidation of this issue is devoted to the work of Kant's "Critique of Judgment."
theory Kant speaks of the unity of critical and philosophical doctrines and ethical philosophy.This unity is revealed thanks to the fundamental position of man in the universe.This position, as well as human behavior that can push the boundaries of knowledge are, one.
Morality should not be considered as a tool for obtaining any results.It is meant to subject itself recognizes the need for specific actions and itself leads to these actions.
Morality is autonomous - says Kant.People who claim to freedom - is the creator of his own morality.The laws of moral action, they create for themselves.
Humane behavior measured by the ratio to the imperative: moral law must be respected.This - the main statement of Kant's ethics.Spokesman respect can only be a phenomenon of the personality as such respect - a priori feeling.Aware of his personality in an identical manner and recognizes the duty law-governed nature of the acts necessary-general.
moral principles significantly different from the religious.Acknowledging that thanks to God the happiness and duty are the same (not the world), Kant emphasizes, however, that a sense of moral has nothing to do with faith, its main feature - autonomy, and it is born out of itself.
moral phenomena point to the fact absolute inner human self-worth.Cognitive attitude does not hold them in its borders.Theoretical reason in them incompetent.
theory of knowledge and ethics of Kant - the greatest achievements of world philosophy.The whole history of the following centuries of culture in one way or another based on Kantian grounds.