Now man is hard to imagine that once a society organized without the state and its various political institutions.After all, they all power authorities.However, history shows that at the beginning of civilization the state was preceded by society as a community of people.Thus, the problem of the primitive horde of hunters decided the only leader, that is the leader.Together with the emergence of tribes and there was a council of elders, which were resolved various disputes were discussed the main case.To regulate human relations in this period was sufficient existing customs, traditions and norms.
That is the state did not appear instantly.It was the result of a gradual historical development.Ancient philosophers causes of the state saw in the complication of the forms of human society.They believed that the process is quite natural.Aristotle, for example, proposed the following hypothesis to explain the causes of the state.At first, people were connected to the family.When they gathered a few, turned the village.And only at the last stage of the process there is the State as a form of human society, in which citizens are subject to the force of law.At the same time, and there is a political device.
In the Middle Ages origin and essence of the state began to be viewed from a religious point of view.The public were told that it is an institution of power on the ground, installed by God himself.Even modern Catholicism agrees with the views of Thomas Aquinas on the causes of the state.He reminded people that the government is related to the divine laws, and urged her to obey.
with theocratic theories are closely related to ethics.They see the state as the embodiment of law common to all moral ideas.Hegel believed that it represents the highest level at which restored unity, destroyed earlier struggles between individuals and groups.
In modern times, Hobbes, Jean-JacquesRousseau put forward the contractual theory that people who lived without a state, consciously decided to create it (according to) that all have the same rights and freedoms.
theorists conquest (F. Oppenheimer, L. Gumplowicz) believe that they are very realistic explain this phenomenon.In their view, the state and the classes are the result of the conquest of the tribes with each other.
Otherwise, consider the process of Marxist theory.Its members see the causes of the state economically strong class needs to have its political organization in order to suppress the class enemies.That is, it appeared at the level of development of the forces of production, when there was a division of labor, there was private property and, consequently, the inequality and the property division of society into opposing groups.
There are also attempts to explain the causes of the state psychological factor.Proponents of this theory - Burdeau, Kovalevsky.According to her, the leaders influenced the crowd, need guidance, hypnosis, charisma and thus worked state.
In modern political science reigns synthetic view of the causes and forms of occurrence of the state.It takes into account a number of factors affecting the complex active process.This religious, and socio-economic and moral, and psychological, and military.However, the main reason is still seen in the evolution of human economic activity.After the increased productivity, surplus product appeared, society became stratified, depending on the amount of property.To secure its position and protect wealth, people need special rules, regulations, structure.So in politics and the first institutions of governance, which at that stage still relied not only and not so much on the law, but rather on the force of arms.