Many Russian companies are required to prepare such a document as the profit and loss account.This source is intended to include numbers that reflect how efficiently it operates - in terms of extracting revenues and ensuring profitability.This information may be useful to investors, creditors and partners.The need for drafting the relevant report can also occur due to the company's obligations to provide data to government agencies - the Federal Tax Service, the establishment of statistics.What features characterized the document in question?How to make it right?
report Profit and loss statement - an example of the most important document of those that form the financial statements.It may be noted that the more common name of another source, namely - "income statement".That's how it sounds in many of the sources of law.
sometimes referred to as "financial profit and loss."Regardless of the name of the corresponding source comprises: cash performance of the company during the reporting period, information on income from the accrual basis.
Russian legislation defined a standardized document which reflected the relevant information - Form 2. Profit and loss account drawn up by it, includes the following main parameters: profit (loss) at the end of the sale of goods, operating revenues and expensesincome and expenses arising from non-operating activities, the cost of the organization on the output of the full cost (or production), selling and administrative expenses, net income from sales, the value of the income tax, various obligations, assets, net profit.Overall, these data allow adequately assess the effectiveness of the business model of the company.
Profit and loss statement - an example of the most important document in terms of efficiency analysis business model.This source also includes figures, which can determine the profitability of a firm or individual sections of production (implementation).
General financial results of the company are characterized, thus the value of profits, as well as an indicator of profitability.The first criterion may be determined based on the dynamics of sales, renting of certain funds, exchange activities and other activities aimed at profit.The second - also depends on the level of costs.
analysis of the profit and loss allows the organization to determine how effectively management operates within the framework of various business processes - production, supply, marketing solutions and staffing problems.Possession of the relevant information to enable management of the organization or, for example, investors assess how competent are professionals and managers, to prioritize the optimization of enterprise development strategies.Profit and loss account of the enterprise reveals that what factors affect the implementation of the company's business model, which is at the company additional resources to improve financial performance.This information is important for management and for investors or lenders.
report and accounting documents
Profit and loss statement - an example of a document which, as we noted above, included in the financial statements.It is comparable in importance to such sources as the balance sheet.However, the principles of drawing up these documents vary widely.So, the balance sheet is intended to include the data as of a specific date.In turn, the profit and loss account shall contain information to the accrual basis - for the 1st quarter, six months, nine months, and tax year.
balance sheet and profit and loss account for all firms that lead accounting.The main task in the preparation of the first type of document - a reflection of data on property of the company and on the sources of funding for its activities.In turn, the report on profits and losses of the company records the results of operations and is used for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of the business model of the enterprise.Very often, both documents are available to the relevant authorities simultaneously.Selected sources are extremely important as well, as we have noted, for investors, as well as partner organizations plan to collaborate with the company.
consider whether the data in the report of the official?
Profit and loss account - it is the official source.It shall be signed by management and therefore can not contain data that is presented for the purpose of intentionally distorted view of how things are going in the company.In some cases, to compile the relevant documents of the company to attract external partners - in order to improve the quality of the analysis of business model.This is done in the interest, first and foremost, the firm, which is a document - on how a responsible approach to the formation of an organization of this report often depends on the attitude to it from other market players.
general principle of structuring the report - in a reflection of indicators which allow to get an idea of loss-making company or profitable.Key information pertaining thereto, are fixed at the beginning of the document (this revenue, sales data, costs - including management).
Once the basic information that reflects the performance of the enterprise, is fixed in the document, in the report fit additional indicators related to revenue and expenses - for example, interest on deposits (or, conversely, debt), figures showingthe results of the business activities of the company before tax.Then we calculate the profitability of the company after the payment of the required fees to the budget and also recorded in the report.Formed thus the final financial result - net profit (or, conversely, loss) for the fiscal period.
indicators to determine the specifics of the report
What to look for when determining the indicators to be included in such a document as Form 2?Profit and loss account should first of all be prepared on an accrual basis.What does it mean?Revenue should be charged at a time when the buyer or the customer organization should begin the fulfillment of obligations related to payment for goods or services.They usually appear after the products are shipped or services - are provided.Documented is usually accompanied by a presentation from the customer required computational resources.
So now we know what a Form 2 - the profit and loss account.We now study it, what are the nuances of writing.The shape of the corresponding report is standardized and recommended by the Ministry of Finance.Prepare documents necessary to 30 March of the year following the reporting year - when it comes to providing data for the fiscal year.It may be noted that the appropriate form of the profit and loss account can be adjusted by experts that make up the document.Those or other lines can be removed (for example, if for some indicators reflect nothing) or, on the contrary, added to the staff of relevant departments of the company.
How to complete the report?
How to correctly fill in the profit and loss account?Blank on Form 2 - the first thing that we need.You can ask for the nearest branch of the Federal Tax Service or downloaded from the site office - nalog.ru.The first thing you should pay attention when filling in the appropriate instrument - in each of its fixed line totals.
It may be noted that the general information about the organization, referred to in the Form №2, in general, similar to that recorded in the balance sheet, or Form №1.Among those: the reporting period, the name of the company (in accordance with the constituent documents), NACE codes, and others that are required in accordance with the form, the legal status of the company, as well as the unit of measurement used in the document.
In what order can be filling such document the profit and loss account?An example of the algorithm of drawing up the relevant document, we examine based on the key points Form №2.
Paragraph 2110 indicates revenues the organization.It represents the amount of income that have arisen as a result of the sale of goods, provision of services or performance of work by the company, part of the report.Of this amount, you must deduct the VAT.Information for filling in the relevant points to be taken from the account 90 (ie, the "Sale").
paragraph 2120 fixed costs.Information to fill it should also take account of the 90 (out of debit).However, to exclude costs associated with the sale (this may, in principle, to treat all the costs other than administrative and those associated with the transportation and procurement activities - for them the form of the profit and loss statement provides separate line).
paragraph 2100 fixed the gross profit (or loss).Calculated the corresponding value is easy - the difference between the figures in lines 2110 and 2120.
paragraph 2210 gives the commercial costs.These may be costs associated with the main types of business activities of the company, except those that relate to the transportation and procurement.Data for the corresponding item is necessary to take account of 44 (his debit).These expenses are also included in the cost, is reflected in account 90.
paragraph 2220 are fixed management costs - those associated with the organization of the management system in the company.It may be administrative costs associated with the lease, payment of labor compensation to employees who transfer to the budget of the relevant taxes.The figures need to take account of 26 (ie, the "General Expenses").Note that these data are included in the debit account 90.
paragraph 2200 fixed income arising from the sale.Of course, it can also be a loss.To get the right numbers need to use figures of the income statement, contained in paragraphs 2100, 2210 and 2220. From the first figure you subtract the second, and from the resulting figure - the third.
Paragraph 2310 states revenue from other organizations.Her appearance is possible if the company invests in the authorized capitals of other companies, resulting in a dividend or a share of the profits.This type of fixed income and account 91 (loan).
paragraph 2130 fixed interest receivable.They may be associated with the presence of the company bank deposits, deposits, bonds or, for example, bills.Relevant information can be obtained from the account 91 (as well as the previous indicator of credit).
coexist with these figures point in 2330, which reflects the interest payable.They may be connected, for example, credit risk.Necessary information can also be taken from the account 91 (a debit).
paragraph 2340 recorded other income.Numbers are formed by the revenue that is listed on the account 91 (loan), excluding VAT and other taxes, which are included in the debit of the account, and not recorded in the other indicators, which include the profit and loss statement (lines 2310 and 2320).In paragraph 2350 reflected, in turn, other expenses.It costs that are recorded on the account 91 (for debit), except for indicators of line 2330.
paragraph 2300 fixed income (or loss) before tax appeared.To calculate it is necessary to lay down a number of indicators that includes the shape of the profit and loss account, namely, those that are reflected in the lines of 2200, 2310, 2320, and then subtracted from the sum of the resulting numbers in lines 2330 and 2340. But that's not all.From the resulting figures must be subtracted the value of a string of 2350.
paragraph 2310 reflected income tax - for the reporting period for which the organization is the document in question.The source of the necessary data can serve as a score 68 (ie, "Taxes and fees").If the firm pays tax at PBU 18/02, it can also be filled with items in 2421, 2430 and 2450. What is their specificity?
paragraph 2421 fixed permanent tax liabilities of the company.How?For example, if the calculation of the income tax recorded discrepancies between the indicators are included in the accounting and tax records, we found the difference between them gets the status of a permanent.If you multiply it by the tax rate, the corresponding amount shall be paid to the budget now.The corresponding liability is recorded on the account 99 specific numbers that you must specify in this paragraph may be defined as the difference between the indices of debit and credit account 99 (more specifically, sub-account "Permanent tax liabilities").Such is the specificity of filling the document if, for example, the firm of tax documents, balance sheet and profit and loss account at the same time.
Paragraphs 2430 and 2450 reflect the deferred tax liabilities.If the company takes into account the revenues or expenses in the same period, and taxation should take place in the other, the corresponding figures form the time difference.Income tax acquires the status of the pending obligations.Data for the selected items can be taken both from the account 77, for example, of the account 09.
Paragraph 2460 includes other information.There may be fixed information relating to other amounts that affect the size of the firm's profits.It can be various penalties, fines, overpayments.
paragraph 2400 reflects the net profit of the organization.The corresponding figures can also capture and loss.In order to get them out of the need to deduct the amount of line 2300 performance points in 2410, 2430 and 2450. After that - to deduct from the amount of the resulting values in the row 2460.
paragraph 2510 fixed the result of the revaluation.It reflects the results related to the revaluation of the various fixed assets.In paragraph 2520 fixed the result of other operations.The relevant line reflects information that is not considered the originator of the report in the preceding paragraphs.In paragraph 2500 is determined by the outcome of a tax period.It is determined by adding together the figures in lines 2400, 2510 and 2520. If the company operates as a joint-stock company, it shall be filled as line 2900 and 2910, reflecting the profit or loss per share.
Working with document
Ready profit and loss statement (form with all figures inscribed and signed by the head of the company) For territorial division of the Federal Tax Service at the place of the enterprise.
In some cases compiling a simplified document.Its structure involves an indication of fewer digits - in groups of individual articles, but without much detail of various indicators.This opportunity is open to small businesses.Analysis of the profit and loss account of big business, in turn, involves the study of a large amount of different indicators.This is necessary for an objective assessment of the effectiveness of the development model of organization - managers, investors or creditors.