Eighty Years' War

In modern historiography known as the Eighty Years 'War, Eighty Years' War (1568 - 1648) - the fight Seventeen Provinces (personal union of states in the Low Countries) for independence against the most powerful in Europe, the Spanish Empire during the reign of Philip II.

We are not talking about a long war.Throughout the 80 years, it comes in many individual rebellions, as multi-year truce (in 1609 -1621 years).The struggle for independence led to the separation of the North and South of the Netherlands and the formation of the Republic of the United Provinces of the Netherlands.

The most common opinion is that the Eighty Years' War began with the looting of churches and convents in 1566.

explain the reasons for the uprising poor economic situation of people, high taxation, oppression of the new Calvinist religion.

severance of relations between Catholics and the king on the one hand, on the other hand Calvinists and discontented nobles who demanded freedom to worship, led to rebellion.The leader of the Calvinists became William I of Orange.

to put down the revolt, Philip sent to lower the country's new governor, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, who is very actively started to solve its task.On the day of his arrival in Brussels, headed by elite troops he had approved the Council for unrest - better known as Bloody Board because of the many executions of death sentences.The Council was created to punish the instigators of political and religious issues in the Netherlands.In total, at the Duke of Alba from 1567 to 1573 years in the Netherlands, executed about 18 000 people.

Eighty Years' War began with the two unsuccessful invasions in 1568 and 1572, respectively, William of Orange with a hired army of sea gёzov, irregular Dutch land and naval forces.Because of scarce funding and a small army of public support for the invasion was doomed initially.

But unexpectedly geuzen captured the city of Brielle April 1, 1572, which was the sign for the Calvinists in the provinces of Holland and Zeeland to rise again.

Spaniards generally had success, but the Eighty Years' War cost them huge financial costs.Therefore peace negotiations were started, but they failed.Meanwhile, the Duke of Alba, who did not like the Low Countries, primarily because of the humid climate, Philip asked several times to release him of his duties as governor.Philip finally agreed and in 1573 was appointed as the new governor Luis de Rekezens.But in 1576, he died suddenly.

In addition, at that time there was no successor for months mercenaries was not paid a salary, and Spanish troops appeared serious discontent, which gave a start to revolt, called the "Spanish fury".The soldiers smashed and looted Antwerp, killing 10,000 of its inhabitants.

revolution in the Netherlands continued as these circumstances further strengthened the determination of insurgents to seek independence.

8 November 1576 was signed Pacification of Ghent.Holland, Zeeland and southern (Catholic) the province agreed on religious tolerance and mutual co-operation to expel the Spaniards from the Dutch land.Ghent joined the agreement and the other northern provinces.

6 January 1579 the union was weakened by the defection of Ghent agreement Walloon provinces signatories Arras union, which they expressed loyalty to the Spanish king.In response, January 23, 1579 in Utrecht union was created against the Spanish governorship, united seven northern provinces of the Netherlands and to lay the foundations of a future independent Republic.

By 1588 the Spaniards, when the governor of the Netherlands Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, reconquered the southern Low Countries.The birth of the Dutch Republic in the north came under attack.But Spain parallel led military campaign against Britain and France, which allowed the Netherlands to start a counteroffensive

For the twelve-year truce period (from 1609) the Dutch state borders were sealed.

By and large, the Netherlands bourgeois revolution covers the first fifty years of fighting between Spain and the Netherlands (1568 -1618).Over the last thirty years (1618 -1648) the conflict between Spain and the Netherlands, was merged with the European war, known as the Thirty Years' War.